This study utilizes the Taiwan colonial household registration data to study the cause of uxorilocal marriage in Taiwan during the period of Japanese colonial rule and, simultaneously, to compare the prevalence of uxorilocal marriage in urban (Taipei) and rural (XinChu) communities. The socioeconomic status of the bride and groom’s family, and ethnic and urban–rural differences are the main issues in this research. In addition, the viewpoints of Wolf and Huang and Pasternak will be rechecked vis-à-vis regional differences. The results of this study will be presented by statistic analysis and geographic information system. In Taiwan, compared to major and minor marriage, uxorilocal marriage had a higher ratio in Taipei and XinChu. In uxorilocal marriage, the age of brides and grooms is older in Taipei than in XinChu. In addition, our research indicates either daughters or adopted daughters, if they had fewer siblings or no brothers, had a higher probability of entering into uxorilocal marriages. Moreover, uxorilocal marriages were found to be less prevalent in later birth cohorts while ethnic groups and parent’s marriage types had no direct effect on uxorilocal marriage.