Learning emotions are learners’ reaction to learning. Finding ways to keep learners feeling positive is an important mission for instructors. Flow theory proposed by Csikszentmihalyi in 1975 argues that the challenge-skill balance is a precondition for flow experience. When the challenge of learning is higher than the learners’ ability, the learners will feel anxiety, and when it is lower than learners’ ability, the learners will feel boredom. When the challenge of learning matches the learners’ ability, a flow experience will appear. However, the current empirical study of 110 participants reveals that emotions related to enjoyment may appear when the learners’ skill is equal to or higher than the learning challenge. Nevertheless, boredom may appear when the learners perceived the courses are difficult but unimportant. These findings revealed the necessary of rethinking the argument of challenge-skill balance and emotions of boredom and enjoyment in flow theory.
The 12th International Conference on IT Applications and Management