Many proposed non-interactive deniable authentication protocols providing anonymity assume that the sender and receiver know each other in advance. To protect sensitive transmitted identity data, Hwang and Sung proposed the first non-interactive deniable authentication protocol with message confidentiality, anonymity, and fair protection. However, the underlying assumption of anonymity with Hwang and Sung's protocols is impractical because the sender and receiver are anonymous. Moreover, the message confidentiality of Hwang and Sung's protocol is only indistinguishably secure against chosen plaintext attacks. To remove this inappropriate assumption, this study proposes a non-interactive fair deniable authentication protocol with anonymity and indistinguishable message confidentiality against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks. This novel protocol is more suitable for practical application.
Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 16(3), pp.305-318