本文以歷史回顧，探索現代越南的建國歷程，檢視傳統之越南民族主義之源頭，與現代民族主義之重要因素，分別以中國、法國、和美國的影響為重點。加上後冷戰時期的全球化挑戰，探討在越南建構國家認同的議題。研究發現越南現代形象是堅決抵抗外來勢力的民族性，也看到越南人調適國家生存發展的彈性與務實態度。當然越南有悲情的過去，整個歷史發展都面臨北方龐大的中國帝國的威脅，必須巧妙地與中國周旋，利用中國的文化和技術協助自己進步，但是不能被同化或徹底征服。法國殖民是越南建立現代民族國家的重要催化劑，美國介入越戰則是越南建國統一的最後阻礙。相繼擊敗這些強敵，形塑越南人獨立自主之民族性，也形成越南無敵之民族情緒。後冷戰時期，越南以開放態度面對全球化，讓越南快速融入東南亞與全世界。未來展望重點也在政治改革開放之議題，這也是越南能否更加讓世人刮目相看之關鍵。 The main purpose of this article is to do historical review on Vietnam before and after its independence from foreign powers and the formation of its nation state. The major “otherness” roles during this long process are China, France, and the United States. Among them, China played the longest and strongest force for Vietnamese nationalism. Resisting the Chinese invasion through military and cultural means was the most important task for Vietnam’s pursue for identity. The French colonialism also inspired the Vietnamese elites to get independence and build the modern nation state. The Vietnam War with the United States concluded the final chapter of the state building process. Facing the wave of globalization after the Cold War, Vietnam adopted the whole new attitude to engage with the region and the whole world. Its open policy instantly helps to build up its economic base and earned positive image globally. However, just like the case of its counterpart, China, the Communist regime could not avoid the request for political reform. Therefore, the major task for the future would be on the political aspect in Vietnam.
台灣國際研究季刊=Taiwan International Studies Quarterly 10(1)，頁79-97