本研究主要目的為調查專案領導者能力與主管－部屬交換關係品質的關聯性，及其對於研究機構中專案績效的影響。研究中使用結構方程模式來驗證所提出的模式，根據超過200個研究專案的資料分析發現，專案領導能力可增進研究團隊中的主管－部屬交換關係品質，而進一步可提升研究專案績效。研究結果並顯示主管－部屬交換關係品質可中介專案領導能力對於研究專案績效的影響，此外，團隊關係、業主屬性與專案預算對於主管－部屬交換關係品質與研究專案績效的關係具有干擾效果。 The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of the project leader’s competencies with leader-member exchange (LMX) quality, and their impact on project performance in research institutions. The structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to validate the research model. Using data from more than 200 research projects, the analyses find that leadership competency is positively associated with LMX quality in a research team. Additionally, research project performance can be achieved with higher levels of LMX quality. The results also show that LMX quality mediates the effects of leadership competency on research project performance. Finally, the findings indicate that team relationship, owner regulation, and project budget have a moderating effect on the relationship between LMX quality and research project performance.