|摘要: ||近年台灣產業環境在面對全球化新趨勢情況下, 製造業的中小企業由一個在出口市場中扮演主導者的地位, 在極短的期間內, 轉為次要角色。本文利用台閩地區工商普查的製造業資料進行實證, 探討中小企業出口市場佔有率在1986年與1991年間的轉變來源, 並針對中小企業出口佔有率及其轉變的決定因素, 進行初步分析。研究結果發現 1986與1991年間, 中小企業外銷比率在各細項產業內的普遍下降, 是中小企業出口佔有率下降的最重要來源, 其次依序為出口結構的轉變以及產業外銷比率的上升。中小企業市場佔有率的上升則有抑制其出口佔有率下降的效果。 其次, 影響中小企業出口佔有率的因素因觀察時點不同而不同。儘管如此, 中小企業相對勞動生產力一直是影響其出口佔有率的重要正面因素。此外, 中小企業的相對高資本勞動比, 或高工資率有利於取得較高的出口佔有率。在1991年, 中小企業相對廠齡較大, 其出口佔有率也大。1986年中小企業的研發投資, 對1991年的出口佔有率有明顯的助益。最後, 中小企業相對勞動生產力成長幅度大、基期的研發投資大, 都能促成其出口佔有率較顯著的成長。外人對中小企業部門相對投資比例成長越大, 則越不利該部門出口佔有率的成長。|
In facing the recent trend of globalization, Taiwan's SEMs (Small and medium scaled enterprises) whom used to be known for their exportoriented role are now experiencing a new challenge. By focusing on the issue concerning SEMs' export shares, this study try to identify the sources of their changes and the determinants of SMEs export shares as well as their changes. The empirical works here were based mainly on census data of manufacturing industries in 1986 and 1991. On the subject of the sources of changes of SMEs' export shares, we built a model, in which we found that the main sources of these changes was the general decreasing trend of SEMs' proportion of foreign sales to total sales. Next in importance was the fact that SEMs' export shares were shrinking in nearly every manufacturing sectors. While a general increasing trend of SMEs' market shares (In the total of domestic and foreign sales) proved to mitigate the down turn SMEs' export shares. Our study also shown that basically there was a change in the structural relationship between SMEs' export shares and their determinants between 1986 and 1991. However, SMEs relative labor productivity remained conducive to SMEs' export shares as well as their changes. Capital productivity on the other hand had no significant effect on our dependent variable. Industries in which SMEs were having relatively high capital labor ratio and wage payment, their SMEs' export shares were higher too. Old age signified good experience was only collaborative in our study when using data in 1991. The benefit draw from SMEs' participated on R&D related activities only harvest in later date. Finally, an increase in foreign direct investment on Taiwan's SMEs, decrease the changes on SMEs' export shares.