The concept of "absolutely riskier than" is introduced to generalize Gollier's  necessary and sufficient conditions for the comparative statics of a change in risk given risk aversion. The restrictive assumption that the payoff function is monotonic in the risk is relaxed. A simple but realistic example is given to illustrate how easily the monotonicity assumption is violated. Finally, to show how the concept of "absolutely riskier than" operates, it is used to explain why the concept of second-order stochastic dominance is neither necessary nor sufficient for the comparative statics of shifts in distributions under a general payoff function.
淡江大學 創校五十週年商學院國際學術研討會論文集=Marching into the New Millennium: Economic Globalization=Proceedings，頁383-408