濁水溪沖積扇地下水資源豐富成本低且取之方便，是臺灣地下水資源最為豐沛地區之一，也是地下水超限使用最嚴重地區之一；瞭解濁水溪流域地面水與地下水之間的交互變動關係有其必要性，方能安全且充分運用地下水資源。本研究以自組特徵映射網路(SOM)之聚類特性探討濁水溪流域降雨與河川流量對地下水變動之關係；並討論在SOM模式中時間與空間因子對地下水變動之相關性。本研究將研究區域分濁水溪扇頂區、山區及觸口區三區，探討各區地下水位變動受降雨量、河川流量等水文因子之趨勢影響關係。 SOM分析結果顯示(1)降雨因子部分：颱風雨或豪大雨以中、上游地區對地下水位變化影響較大，區域型大雨則以鄰近區域降雨影響較大；降雨因子對扇頂區地下水變化影響較大，對山區地下水位變化影響相對較小。(2)河川流量部分：藉由SOM拓樸特性能觀察在豐枯季節交替變化過程中，地下水與河川流量之間的交互作用關係；高流量或中高流量時期山區與扇頂區地下水上升量大，在高流量銳減至中高或中低流量之際，地下水流出補注地面水達水平衡。觸口(1)、觸口(2)不同於其他地下水井之豐水補注枯水流出之趨勢。 In Taiwan, Zhuoshui River alluvial fan is one of the most abundant groundwater resources that are low-cost and easy-to-use; the area has seriously suffered from overuse of groundwater. For safe yield and effective use of groundwater resources in Zhuoshui River basin, investigating the interaction relationship between surface water and groundwater is important. This study used Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to investigate the effects of hydrological factors, including precipitation and streamflow, on the variability of groundwater level. Through the topological characteristics of SOM, we also discussed the correlation between time or space factors and groundwater level variation. In this study, Zhuoshi River watershed is divided into three areas, the alluvial fan region, mountainous region and chukou region, to investigate the trend effect of rainfall and streamflow factors on these three regions’ groundwater level variation, respectively. The results show that (1) Rainfall factors: For typhoon rainfall or torrential rainfall, rainfall in the midstream and upstream regions has a greater impact on groundwater level variation, and regional heavy rainfall in neighboring regions has a greater impact. Rainfall factors have greater impact on groundwater level variation in the alluvial fan region than in the mountainous region. (2) streamflow factors: The topological characteristics of SOM can display the interaction between the streamflow and groundwater level variation during the alternation processes of wet and dry seasons. During high flow or middle-high flow periods, groundwater levels rise greatly in the mountainous region and the alluvial fan region. During the period of high flow decreasing to middle-high or middle-low flow, the groundwater recharge surface water to attain water balance. The groundwater level variations of chukou(1) and chukou(2) are different from others that are recharged in wet season and discharge in dry season.