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    Title: 以好氧造粒程序處理血液透析廢水
    Other Titles: Treatment of hemodialysis wastewater by aerobic granular process
    Authors: 鄭至翔;Cheng, Chih-Hsiang
    Contributors: 淡江大學水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
    李奇旺
    Keywords: 血液透析廢水;好氧顆粒污泥;氨氮;硝化作用;Hemodialysis wastewater;Aerobic granule;Ammonia nitrogen;Nitrification;SBR
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 14:46:52 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 血液透析廢水因含有高濃度的氨氮(約60~70 mg/L),若未經處理直接將廢水排入水溝會造成嚴重污染。根據文獻指出好氧造粒程序能有效去除氨氮,且具有較佳的穩定性、維持高污泥濃度,以及能承受高有機負荷。故本研究於SBR系統內以好氧顆粒污泥處理某診所排放之血液透析廢水,探討好氧顆粒污泥及實廠之活性污泥對於血液透析廢水中COD及氨氮之去除效率。
    初期為確認血液透析廢水能培養出好氧顆粒污泥,以血液透析廢水作為進流水,於實驗室培養好氧顆粒污泥,觀察顆粒之形成及水質處理狀況。經觀察發現SBR系統能培養出好氧顆粒污泥,且各水質分析結果皆有明顯的去除效率。SBR系統經過三周的培養期間,即可形成好氧顆粒污泥,且對於COD及氨氮之去除效率皆可達95%以上。此外,從SBR系統得知好氧顆粒污泥能將氨氮完全氧化為硝酸鹽氮。
    後期將SBR系統搬至該診所之廢水處理廠進行培養,並定期至實廠採集SBR系統及實廠之進、出流水,於實驗室進行各項水質分析。由於該診所會針對血液透析機進行消毒,故SBR系統於實廠培養約六個月的期間,活性污泥因受到次氯酸鈉之影響,皆未形成好氧顆粒污泥,對於COD及氨氮之去除效率均降至85%左右,而從結果得知SBR系統之活性污泥僅能將氨氮氧化為亞硝酸鹽氮。因此,比較SBR系統於實驗室及實廠培養結果顯示,好氧顆粒污泥比起活性污泥更有利於硝化作用進行,且對於水質有較好之處理結果。
    Hemodialysis wastewater contains high concentration of ammonia nitrogen (about 60~70 mg/L). It may cause serious water pollution if the wastewater is not properly treated. Literatures showed that aerobic granule process has good stability, maintains high sludge concentration, withstands high organic loadings, and can remove ammonia nitrogen effectively. In this study, aerobic granular process was used to treat hemodialysis wastewater collected from a local clinic. Both aerobic granular process and activated sludge process in the existing activated sludge process were compared side-by-side for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen of hemodialysis wastewater.
    At first, cultivation of aerobic granule using hemodialysis wastewater was conducted in the laboratory to observe granule formation and treated water quality. The result shows that aerobic granule can be cultivated in SBR reactor using hemodialysis wastewater as substrate, having outstanding treatment efficiency. After a three-week operation, aerobic granules were formed in SBR reactor, achieving more than 95% of COD and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency. Besides, complete oxidation of ammonia nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen was observed in the aerobic granule process.
    Thereafter, SBR reactor was moved onsite to the clinic and was operated side-by-side with the activated sludge process in the existing wastewater treatment plant. Influent and effluent of SBR reactor and of the existing treatment process were collected and brought back to laboratory regularly for water quality analysis to compare the performance of two systems. No aerobic granules formed during the course of six-month study due to raw water containing sodium hypochlorite, which was used to sterilize medical devices at the end of each business day. Therefore, the onsite SBR reactor was operated as a normal activated sludge system. Less than 85% of COD and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved for both systems. Furthermore, the SBR reactor was only capable of oxidizing ammonia nitrogen into nitrite nitrogen, while no ammonia nitrogen removal was observed for the activated sludge process of the existing treatment plant. Comparison of SBR reactor in the laboratory with SBR reactor onsite, this study confirmed that aerobic granule process achieved better nitrification efficiency and produced better treated water quality than activated sludge process.
    Appears in Collections:[水資源及環境工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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