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    Title: 柳永與宋詞之發展
    Other Titles: Liu Yung and the development of Ci in the Song Dynasty
    Authors: 黃嬿樺;Huang, Yan-Hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士在職專班
    呂正惠;Lu, Zhend-Yhui
    Keywords: 柳永;北宋詞壇;詩詞之變;Liu Yung;literati circle;Chinese poetic forms
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 14:19:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 從詩到詞的演變,實是民間流行風氣所主導而來的結果。柳永以寫曲譜詞造就流行音樂為能事,在他的創作之下,許多詞樂的內容書寫青樓女子的心聲,而樂曲娓娓動人,使柳永聲名在民間大噪。因此探討北宋詞體文學在民間與文壇的共同流行現象,柳永的詞是不能略而不提的。本文透過柳永的詞在北宋社會與詞壇的流行與影響,來探討詞體文學在宋代大放異彩的成因。
    詞體文學的形成,除了與音樂本身的聯繫性外,與唐宋以來的歌妓制度有著密切的關係。柳詞的流行是依賴都市消費人口的支持以及消費市場的龐大需求,因而產生的社會現象。文人對於柳永的正面評價焦點在他精於音律,反面論述是文字上的粗鄙、過於露骨的男女情愛主題、以及缺乏文人雅士在文學傳統上的底蘊餘味的訴求。宋文人群體對於柳永的意見並不公正客觀,而這與柳永的個人生平行徑以及文人的自我文學觀念有密切的關係。
    柳永詞的特色上,有三個重點,第一是便於歌唱,二是文字淺白,三是反映大眾生活情景。而柳詞在北宋文人間接受與傳承其文學特質上也以三個面向為重,一是詞體協於音律,第二是詞體鋪敘模式,第三是詞體內容拓展。
    在柳永其後的詞體發展上,周邦彥以雅化的形式使詞朝著精緻化而注重音律的型態發展,而蘇軾以「以詩入詞」的文人詞則意味著其與柳永專注於文字與音樂兩者關連性的訴求為之背離。
    綜觀北宋文人針對柳永所作的各種文學意見上的批評,其實只是反映了宋代及其之後的文人傳統思維如何支配了本來屬於民間文藝一環的詞體文學論述,他們將柳永屏除於文人群體之外,將民間喜好觀感視為是無知的沒有文化涵養的體現,也因此詞體文學日後的雅化趨勢或別開分流的情況,都與民間場域漸行漸遠。
    Abstract:
    The evolution of Chinese poetic forms from shi to ci was a result of the influence of the popular literature practice among the general public. One of the pioneers of the latter, Liu Yung, was adept in composing music and writing lyrics (in the style of ci). Liu’s fame boomed for the vivid depiction of the heartfelt feelings of the whorehouse girls in many of the lyrics and the touching music. Therefore, the ci lyrics written by Liu cannot be ignored when exploring the popularity of the ci literature among the people in general and in the literati circle during the Northern Song Dynasty. This thesis analyzes the reasons of the prevalent success of ci in the Song Dynasty by looking at the popularity and influence of Liu’s ci works in the Northern Song society and among the ci writers.
    In addition to its connection with the music, the formation of the ci literature is inextricably linked with the sing-song girls system in the Tang and Song Dynasties. The social phenomenon of the popularity of Liu Yung’s ci relied on the support of the urban consumer population and the huge demand of the consumer market. The positive critics of the literati on Liu Yung focused on his expertise of temperament. The negative comments included the vulgarity of the words, suggestive romance themes and the lack of elegant taste usually found in a traditional literati. The opinions of the Song Dynasty literati on Liu Yung were not impartial and not objective and this can be attributed to his personal conduct and his literature conceptions.
    The lyrical works of Liu Yung are characterized by three main features: easiness in singing, simple and plain words and reflection of the grassroots lives. Literarily, his ci style found acceptance and were inherited by the Northern Song literati in the three main aspects: the lyrical coordination with the melody, the pattern of lyrical narratives and the lyrical content expansion.
    For the development of ci after Liu Yung, the elegant style of Zhou, Bang-yen’s works moved the poetic form towards higher delicacy with an emphasis on the temperament patterns while the SuShi’s approach to “incorporate the features of shi in ci” for his ci of the literati symbolized a divergence from the stress on the connection between words and music found in Liu Yung’s ci style.
    The critics on the Liu Yung’s literature works by the literati of the Northern Song Dynasty are actually reflection of how the traditional thinking of the Song Dynasty and later literati dominated the general opinions on ci, which originally was a part of the folk literature. They excluded Liu Yung from the literati community and dismissed the preferences and feelings of the general public as mere ignorance and uncultivation. The later elegant trend or differentiation of the ci literature from the original style gradually separated the literati from the general peasants.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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