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    Title: 康僧會<<六度集經>>之研究
    Other Titles: Research on Kang Senghui's Liu-Tu Chi-Ching
    Authors: 畢書徑;Bettinelli, William
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士班
    盧國屛
    Keywords: 康僧會;六度集經;傳教;佛典;Kang Seng-hui;Liu-tu Chi-ching;Missionary Work;Buddhist Text
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 14:17:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 《六度集經》是一部佛典,按照佛教文學分類方式,其收集的故事大部分屬於十二分教的本生類型,敘述釋迦牟尼佛尚未成佛前身為菩薩前生的經驗,其章節的遍體順序是以菩薩行之道,即「六度」(今譯為六波羅蜜多,六波羅蜜)編章,將裡面的故事按照其內容歸類於佈施、持戒、忍辱、精進、禪定、智慧六種的修行方法。所謂「六度」強調的意義在於救度眾生,利人益己的精神。這是大剩佛教重要的修行概念,因為基本上,六波羅蜜在小乘佛教的基礎上,將早期佛教主張以內在修行方式來度世解脫擴展到一種處世,兼有內在與外在功夫的修行方式。
    在介紹大乘佛教菩薩道的基礎上,康僧會特別注重所謂「六度」的第五項,禪度無極,而康僧會對禪學的瞭解源於東漢著名的翻譯家安世高和當時的小乘禪學學派的譯者和傳教者。因此,雖然菩薩思想屬於大乘佛教的範圍,若從思想的角度看《六度集經》,有關禪學的具體詮釋寫的極為周全,甚至曾經有學者認為,為了全面地理解當時的禪學思想,《六度集經》占有代表性的地位 。
    鑑於《六度集經》的文化內含和語言風格特別異於前代的翻譯作品,如何對待其內容變為近代學者的研究議題。觀察以上的現象以及《六度集經》的其他與傳統中國思想相同之處,學者開始討論《六度集經》可否視為一部「以儒釋佛」甚至一種融合儒家和佛家思想之作品。但是《六度集經》故事的傳統中國文化內容不盡如此,其故事裡面也包括不少的方術內含和道家用語。若是「以儒釋佛」的角度來看六度集經,會不會矮化其較為廣泛的中國傳統內含?而若是以儒佛思想融合的角度來解釋,裡面的儒家和佛家思想是否應該受到平等的對待?至此系列的問題,我們現得釐清《六度集經》成書的社會歷史背景,並分析康僧會的傳教活動和其他作品,才能更進一步分析康僧會編譯《六度集經》的目標和裡面的文化內含。
    本文採用有關康僧會的歷史文獻記載,其自撰作品的內容,《六度集經》故事文本分析,並且拿《六度集經》的一些故事的異譯文本進行比較分析,來突出《六度集經》故事的特質並以社會歷史背景去判斷該特質與當時傳教環境具有何種關係。筆者認為,《六度集經》的文化內含及語言風格跟當時的傳教環境與對象具有密切的關係,而康僧會應用一系列在中國文化很流行的概念,目的是為了使其著作更適合當時的政治社會局面,而在佛教的教義體系內給這些流行概念一點存在空間。
    The Liu-tu Chi-ching is a collection of mainly Buddhist jataka tales which relate the former lives of the Budda before attaining enlightenment. Its tales are arranged in chapters ordered according to the “Six Perfections,” or “Six Pāramitā,” being dāna (generosity), śīla (morality), kṡānti (patience), vīrya (diligence), dhyanā (one-pointed concentration), prajna (wisdom). The heart of the six perfections lies attain what is known as the Boddhisatva path by saving oneself through saving others, which comprises an important part of Chinese Mahayana Buddhism.
    Considering the diverse cultural subject matter and comparatively sinified linguistic structure of the Liu-tu Chi-ching, just how to interpret its unique content has become a topic of academic discussion. Some scholars have taken the viewpoint that the Liu-tu Chi-ching is a Confucian presentation of Buddhism, using popular Confucian concepts to introduce somewhat related Buddhist ideas, while other have gone as far as labeling it a form of philosophical fusion between Confucian and Buddhist thought. However, the Chinese cultural content incorporated in the Liu-tu Chi-ching isn’t limited to Confucian concepts alone, Daoist concepts as well as forms of divination and popular beliefs are also present. Does taking the view of a Confucian presentation of Buddhism diminish the significance of the other cultural content? As to the notion of cultural fusion, is the implication that the Confucian and Buddhist content within the text should be evaluated on equal footing? To further pursue these questions, it is necessary to analyze the social and historical circumstances under which the Liu-tu Chi-ching was created along with the missionary activities and other works written by Kang Seng-hui in order to better understand the objective behind creating the Liu-tu Chi-ching and its cultural content.
    This paper uses historical documents related to the life of Kang Seng-hui, his own works, an analysis of the stories contained in the Liu-tu Chi-ching, as well as a comparison of different renditions of the stories present in other works to highlight the unique characteristics of the Liu-tu Chi-ching and their relationship with contemporary missionary activities. The cultural content and linguistic structure of the Liu-tu Chi-ching are intimately tied to developments in the missionary activities taking place in China during the Late Han and Three Kingdoms Period. Kang Seng-hui applied a series of popular Chinese concepts in order to accommodate contemporary political and social circumstances and to acknowledge room for Chinese popular philosophical and ethical concepts within a Buddhism moral framework.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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