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    Title: 論龐培與凱撒爭權之謀略
    Other Titles: Strategies for power struggle of Pompeius and Caesar
    Authors: 蘇郁棋;Su, Yu-Chi
    Contributors: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士在職專班
    劉增泉;Liou, Tzeng-Chyuan
    Keywords: 龐培;凱撒;克拉蘇;三頭同盟;高盧戰爭;內戰;共和派;Pompeius;Caesar;Crassus;Triumvirate;Gallic War;Civil War;Republicans
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 14:15:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文主要研究羅馬共和末期的著名歷史人物—龐培與凱撒,因以二人為本篇論文的主軸,故以列傳和敍事方式撰寫。希冀從龐培與凱撒的崛起、從政經歷和征戰歷程中,清晰呈現羅馬共和末期的歷史輪廓,了解羅馬自共和走向帝國之因。進一步透過史料和文獻的整理,探討龐培和凱撒之間爭權的謀略,並比較二人在政績、軍功及運用謀略上的異同,最後討論這場爭權奪利戰中龐培敗給後來崛起的凱撒之因,以及權力處於頂峰的凱撒卻遭到刺殺的緣由。
    羅馬共和是論戰功的時代,憑藉輝煌的戰功即能擁有軍權,進而掌控政權,因之給予軍人專制獨裁的機會。這是武官高於文官,軍權大於政權的羅馬從共和制走向帝國制的主因。龐培與凱撒之間的爭權無非欲爭奪國家最高的領導地位,爭權致使二人由政治同盟和聯姻的關係,變成誓不兩立的政敵,他們相互的爭權更是導致國家內戰發生的主因。從龐培與凱撒的爭權過程中,可以發現羅馬共和末期政治人物主要是以政治同盟、政治聯姻、攏絡元老院、賄賂、建立政績和軍功等為其爭權的謀略。若公元前70年代到公元前60年代是龐培的時代,公元前60年代至公元前50年代則是凱撒的時代。其後嶄露頭角的凱撒最後能打敗人稱「偉大的」龐培,主因在於凱撒的勇氣、出奇制勝的戰略和效忠於凱撒的軍團。隨著內戰的結束,龐培與凱撒之間的爭權也隨之落幕,並確立凱撒在羅馬歷史的地位。
    內戰結束後,凱撒成為羅馬實際的領導者,過多的榮譽頭銜和龐大的權力卻也為凱撒帶來致命的危機。共和派決定謀殺凱撒以挽救羅馬共和的體制,未料凱撒之死卻讓羅馬陷入長達十五年的內戰,加速羅馬共和體制的瓦解。凱撒的功成名就並未隨他的死亡而煙消雲散,他成為緃貫古今的著名歷史人物。
    文中自公元前83年龐培投靠蘇拉麾下撰述到公元前44年凱撒之死,藉由二位人物的角度放眼看羅馬共和末期的興衰,希望能提供後續研究者之參考。
    This article mainly studies the late Roman Republic famous historical figures - Pompeius and Caesar. Used these two persons as axis of this thesis, the writing is based on biography and narrative methods. By studying the rise of Pompeius and Caesar and their political careers as well as conquest histories, the purpose of this article was to clearly present the outline of the history of the late Roman Republic and understand the reason why Roman became an empire from a republic. Further sorting through historical materials and literatures to explore the power struggle between Pompeius and Caesar, comparing similarities and differences between both political achievements, military medals and strategies application. Finally, discussing the reason why Pompeius was defeated by the later rise of Caesar, and why Caesar was assassinated when his power was in peak.
    It was an era all depended on battle achievements in Roman Republic. Once a person set brilliant achievements in war could grasp military power and then political power, which a soldier could have opportunity to be despotic dictatorship. This is mainly why Roman Republic that military officer had higher position than civil officer and military power was greater than political power finally became imperial system from republicanism. Striving for power and position between Pompeius and Caesar was nothing but struggled for the highest leadership in the country. Political struggle caused both parties to become irreconcilable political rival from the relationship of political union and intermarriage. Their mutual struggle was the major cause leading a national civil war. In fighting over power and control, politicians in the late Roman Republic were found to use strategies, mainly such as political union, political intermarriage, wining over the will of Senatus, bribery, establishment of political and military power, etc. If the period from 70s B.C. to 60s B.C. was Pompeius’s time, the period from 60s B.C. to 50s B.C. can be called Caesar’s time. Caesar, an up-rising star could finally defeat “Pompeius Magnus” called by people mainly because Caesar’s bravery, surprise move and legions loyal to Caesar. With the end of the civil war, the battle between Pompeius and Caesar signals the curtain coming down that Caesar deserved his position in history.
    Caesar became the true leader in Roman after the end of civil war; however, too many honorary titles and much power just led Caesar to a fatal crisis. The Republicans decided to assassinate Caesar in order to save the Roman republican system, not expecting this to lead to civil war for as long as 15 years, accelerating the collapse of the Roman republican system. Caesar died and his accomplishment has never been vanished, he became a famous legendary leader among ancient historical figures.
    This article described the events from Pompeius joined Sulla’s commander in 83 B.C. to Caesar died in 44 B.C., trying to overview rise and fall of the late Roman Republic through two historical figures’ point of views and providing future researchers with reference.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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