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    Title: 台灣菜的歷史與文化之研究
    Other Titles: History and cultural research of Taiwan cuisine
    臺灣菜的歷史與文化之研究
    Authors: 許育純;Hsu, Yu-Chun
    Contributors: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士在職專班
    周宗賢;Chou, Tsung-Hsien
    Keywords: 台菜;台灣菜;台菜歷史;臺灣料理;Taiwan cuisine;Taiwan food;the culture Taiwan cuisine
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 14:15:43 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 論文提要內容:
    從中國古代典籍,可以看出飲食與人息息相關,進食不只是滿足口腹之慾,也是一種文化、教育的展現、是聯誼的媒介、是生活的禮儀、也是一種美學與藝術,紀錄各階層社會的日常生活習俗。中國飲食文化的「菜系」,指的是在特定自然、社會、歷史條件下長期形成,地方特色最濃郁的菜餚風味體系,是「有特殊的調味品和調味手段,有眾多的烹飪原料為菜系的重要標誌」,並且「有從簡到繁、從低到高、從小吃到大菜、從大眾菜餚到筵席菜餚等一系列風味菜式」。
    「台菜」至今並無統一的定義,蓋因台灣在政權嬗遞下,不同時期輸入不同地區、民族的飲食文化,生活在本地的居民雜居共處,通婚交流,在飲食上也相互學習相互影響,若以「台菜」即為閩菜如此說法,太過偏頗,因台菜同時雜揉閩菜、粵菜、日本菜、八大菜系等色彩在其中,因此,本文將所要書寫的「台菜」定位為:發生在臺灣、臺灣人所食用、在臺灣人祭典、食俗發生的食物,即稱為「台菜」。本文內容整理討論由前人記載,理解這個經過許多不同民族統治、外來文化輸入,交互影響的在地料理;「台灣菜」一詞是何時開始出現?在台灣的開發過程中,「台灣菜」有哪些明顯而重要的變化?台菜背後具有哪些文化展現?在不同政權統治下,台菜的菜色變化,以及廚師、大眾心目中所展現出的「台灣菜」又是哪些菜色?希望能以自身資料整理與所提出的想法觀點,為臺灣的飲食文化史盡棉薄之力。
    如同逯耀東教授所說:「社會與文化的轉變,往往先反映在飲食方面,最先是對不同口味認同和接納,然後經過一段混同的轉變階段,最後融成一種新的口味。」臺灣四面環海,盛產各式海鮮,原住民即以食用獵捕到的臺灣原有動植物維生;明清時期閩粵移民漸多,帶入福建、廣東地區的飲食習慣以及各類的小吃,而伴隨郊商出現的「刀煮」與地方上對筵席菜的重視,也成為戰後臺灣「辦桌」文化的重要開端;日治時期「臺灣料理」一詞的出現、高級料理的消費族群增加,再加上餐飲業為迎合統治階級的飲食習慣,使得當時的「酒樓」林立、臺灣菜菜色的精緻化,日本料理及飲食習慣開始融入臺灣菜式之中;戰後中國各省人民進入臺灣,當然也帶入各省菜系烹調手法,江浙菜、四川菜及各省小吃,使得臺灣菜再度受到衝擊。現在的臺灣菜式,表現出福建菜烹調海產的傳統手法,參以日本生魚片、天婦羅,中國各省菜式、小吃,可以說是雜然紛陳。台灣菜由漢民開拓演變至今日,兼具台灣原住民、日本、中國八大菜系等文化的影響,再加上本土意識抬頭,追求族群的認知與自我認同,已經沒有所謂飲食的「正統」存在,表現出來的就是飲食文化上最重要的「兼容並蓄」。

    關鍵字:台菜;台灣菜;台菜歷史;臺灣料理
    Abstract:
    From ancient Chinese books, food is highly connected with people. It is not only about feeding, but it is the culture, the education, the socialization, the manner, the esthetics, and the art. It records how different societal levels of people live their lives. The "types" of Chinese food refer to the food systems influenced by specific natural environment, society, and history which shows strong area characteristics. They represent food cooked with certain steps or flavorings, They also stand for the series of food that are from simple to complicated, from lower levels to high levels, from vendors to restaurants, from common to delicate.
    Taiwan cuisine does not have specific definition so far. Due to the changes of political power, immigration to Taiwan has helped to shape its cuisine, with people from other countries making various contributions to it. Local people and immigrants live together, and get married. They learn from each other on cooking styles. Therefore, to define Taiwan food as "Minnan food“is too narrow. Taiwan cuisine is influenced by Minnan, Guangdong, Japan, and eight recognized China cooking styles. I would like to use this article to define Taiwan cuisine as" the food happened in Taiwan, eaten by Taiwanese, used in religious festivals, and originated from the customs. There will be lots of aspects in this article. They are as followed: local food influenced by imported culture under the changes of political power; when does the word" Taiwan cuisine" start?; What are the important changes of Taiwan cuisine during its development? ; What are the culture Taiwan cuisine stands for? ;What are the differences of Taiwan cuisine under different political authorities? What are those kinds of food that best represent people and cookers'' impressions about Taiwan cuisine. I hope that this information and point of view could help to Taiwan food history.
    As the professor 逯耀東 said" Food is always the first aspect to reflect the changes of a society and the culture. It starts with the acceptance and acknowledgement of different flavors, and then comes the mixture and transformation. Finally it ends up of a new flavor." Before the arrival of China immigrants from Minan and Guangdong, Taiwan is known for the abundance of vegetables and animals, as well as seafood. The original cooking styles started to be mixed with ideas brought by Minan and Guangdong immigrants to create new dishes. By the growth of merchandizers, the importance of cookers and feasts were established. It is also the time that the culture of "Roadside Banquets" starts. During the time of Japan colonization, the word of "Taiwan cuisine" becomes popular. With the big population from Japan, Taiwan cuisine start to mix Japan tastes. Food become more delicate and with versalities. Taiwan cuisine is heavily influenced by Japan since then. By the immigration form mainland China, they''ve also brought many cooking styles such as Zhejiag and Sichuan, It''s an another huge impact on Taiwan cuisine. Today, Taiwan cuisine contains the seafood cooking style from Fuken, the sashimi, the Tenfulo from Japan,and many kinds of food China provinces. With the cooking style. and the flavors, you can''t define exactly what Taiwan cuisine is. You can say it is a type of food that shows the integrity and influences of what happened during Taiwan''s history.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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