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    題名: 近代台北地區的婦女活動空間及其影響 : 以黃嘂娘、莊斗娘、張聰明為例
    其他題名: Areas of women activitives had a great influences to the society in the recent years : for example : Huang Jiao-Niang, Zhuang Dou-Niang, Zhang Cong-Ming
    作者: 周泓欣;Chou, Hung-Hsin
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士在職專班
    周宗賢;Chou, Tsung-Hsien
    關鍵詞: 貞節;纏足;活動空間;黃嘂娘;莊斗娘;張聰明;Chastity;foot-binding;activity space;Huang Jiao-Niang;Zhuang Dou-Niang;Zhang Cong-Ming.
    日期: 2013
    上傳時間: 2014-01-23 14:15:41 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   空間向來被視為無生命,自然也無性別,實則空間的分配使用隱含著社會建構,可看出每個人的角色地位,本文嘗試從歷史變遷的過程中,觀察婦女的活動空間如何逐步由家庭往社會擴展的趨勢,舊時總以男主外女主內做為兩性之間的位置分配,今日內外的界線已然模糊,這個過渡期有哪些代表人物以資佐證?台灣北部地區在1860年開港後成為中西貿易的重鎮,隨著西方商業勢力的進入,台灣的文化也加入了新的元素,產生了新風貌,此時台灣女性的問題變得複雜,除了受中國傳統儒家文化的影響外,更糾結著移民社會的宗族觀念和世界思想潮流的衝擊。
      女性與大環境的互動關係,如政策、市場、品味皆影響了婦女生活,以台灣的情形而言承襲原鄉的禮教文化表現也非常明顯,和婦女活動空間有極其直接影響的關係,故本文先就傳統社會中的貞節觀、纏足、婦女活動空間三項做背景介紹,接著再以三位典範人物,節孝婦黃嘂娘、商業女強人莊斗娘、外國傳教士之妻張聰明,做為本文婦女活動空間,傳統與後傳統的代表人物介紹。
      黃嘂娘一生遵守傳統三從四德,出嫁從夫,夫死仍不改其志,忍受孤單,完全壓縮自己的生活空間,也壓抑個人精神自由,一心一意,扶養小孩成為有用的人,實踐節孝規範,讓整個家族雨露均霑受到稱讚,成為社會的楷模典範,符合傳統標準求得名聲。
      莊斗娘則投身先夫的事業,打破束縛,在保守的時代率先與洋商往來,用精準眼光切中時勢的發展。突破傳統社會對女性的規範一肩承擔起家族事業的重責大任,在商場上縱橫捭闔,超脫傳統空間,成為新舊並存時代女性代表,並仍能兼顧家庭,熱心公益,修建啟天宮,捐地建立黃氏宗祠凝聚族人心力,雖然沒有貞節牌坊為她慶賀證明,但民間俗諺中的「第一好張德寶、第二好黃仔祿嫂、第三好馬悄哥」,讓她仍時時為後人稱頌,證明自己成功地大大擴展了女性的生命空間。
      張聰明更是一位傳奇的女性,她出身卑微,亦未受過正式的學校教育,但是,綜觀其一生,她不但謹守傳統婦女的女德,又能突破所有的傳統束縛,馬偕宣教事業的成功,她功不可沒,在家庭中的表現更說服其他女性在兼顧家庭之餘,也能完成其他的工作,她的表現打破男主外女主內的傳統界線,帶給傳統漢人,對性別意識、倫理、空間、自主上不同的衝擊,她在協助馬偕傳教過程中建立一個新的社會空間,將女性從家務空間帶入社會的公共空間,而且她到世界各地的經歷,即使在今日看來仍舊顯得不凡。
      新舊文化交替間婦女過著怎樣的生活,女性在近代處境和地位又有何改變?本文試圖透過對獨特的臺灣婦女生活空間的研究,產生新的歷史知識,以改變既有的歷史觀念和對婦女的刻板印象,空間既然是社會建構的產物,研究空間的開展,也就能對女性的社會角色多一些理解。
      This research attempts to discover the changes of women’s social activities in Taipei area and to see how they stood up in the male-dominated society. In today’s world, it is women’s choice whether they want to take care of their family or establish their own career. It was not the case even a few decades ago in Taiwan. Northern part of Taiwan became an important trading area after the market was opened to foreign countries in 1860’s.Since then, western cultures, languages, thoughts, and life styles unobtrusively and imperceptibly influenced local people. As a result, traditional values were challenged, and restrictions on women have gradually been lifted.
    Interactions between east and west had led women to a different life style, which changed the concept of their role in family and in the society. In this thesis, I will first discuss the concept of “chastity,” foot binding, and women’s limited access to public spaces. Then I will identify three figures from the old society: Huang Jiao-Niang (a model traditional housewife), Zhuang Dou-Niang (a business woman), and Zhang Cong-Ming (wife of a foreign missionary).
    Huang Jiao-Niang complied with the traditional Confucian norms. She made the entire family earn respects and a great reputation.
    Zhuang Dou-Niang was a success businesswoman and was also devoted to public service without neglecting her responsibility in her family. It shows that a woman can achieve high with their own ability.
      Zhang Cong-Ming is a legendary woman. She was humble; she knew how to do things in traditional way but she also challenged traditions. Her successful career demonstrated what women could contribute to the society. Her story is still extraordinary even in today’s world.
    顯示於類別:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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