本研究以自我調整學習觀點切入，探討大學生的人格特質與逆境商數對於學習成效之影響。綜觀過去的研究，自我調整學習會影響學習成效，但人格特質對於學習成效之影響卻說法不一；其次逆境商數對於學習成效的影響之研究著墨甚少。因此本研究探討人格特質與逆境商數在自我調整學習與學習成效之間是否有干擾作用。本研究以台灣之大學生為研究對象並採取問卷調查法，共計回收有效樣本256份。分析方法則以探索性因素分析、差異分析、相關分析、及階層迴歸法來進行分析。研究結果顯示高年級的學生之自我調整學習能力比低年級的學生較佳，低年級的逆境商數之持續構面比高年級的學生較佳；學生的自我調整學習能力會正向影響學習成效，且傾向神經質特質的學生、逆境商數之控制構面的學生在其自我調整學習與學習成效之間具有干擾作用。 This research begins the self-regulated learning perspective, and investigates how the university student’s personality traits and adversity quotient relate to their learning performance. The recent studies showed that self-regulated learning would affect the learning performance. However, there are different opinions about the effect of the personality traits on the learning performance. In addition, the studies to investigate that the adversity quotient influences the learning performance are rare. Therefore, this study tries to investigate whether the personality traits and the adversity quotient have the moderating effect between the self-regulated learning and the learning performance. The research adopted the questionnaire survey to get the empirical data from the students of university of Taiwan, a total of 256 samples were effective, and analyzed the data by the exploratory factor analysis, the T-test, the analysis of variance, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the hierarchical regression. The results showed that the high grade student is better than the low grade student in the self-regulated learning, but the low grade student is better than the high grade student in the Endurance construct of adversity quotient. Self-regulated learning has significantly positive effect on learning performance. The study also found that Neuroticism and Control construct of adversity quotient have the moderating effect between self-regulated learning and learning performance.