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    題名: 批判性思考之教材發展與評鑑 : 以媒體素養單元為例
    其他題名: Development and evaluation of critical thinking teaching material : a case study of media literacy unit
    作者: 莊智凱;Chuang, Chih-Kai
    貢獻者: 淡江大學教育科技學系碩士班
    鄭宜佳;Cheng, Yi-Chia
    關鍵詞: 媒體素養;批判性思考;設計導向研究法;Media literacy;Critical Thinking;design-based research
    日期: 2013
    上傳時間: 2014-01-23 13:26:34 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 在這資訊流動迅速的時代,只要短短的時間就能將訊息傳遞至許多人,但是可能隨著發起者主觀的註解,而扭曲了事實的真相,也並不是每個人都能正確解讀、判斷訊息,因此,培養學習者具備批判性思考面對日常生活中媒體訊息的媒體素養實為重要。本研究透過設計導向研究法(Design-based Research, DBR),開發與設計媒體素養之「批判性思考」教材,探討在媒體素養課程所需具備內涵,再進一步進行專家評鑑與學習者滿意度測試,藉由探索開發與設計教材之過程,能進一步提供相關領域之教師作為規劃媒體素養課程與教材開發之依據以及作為相關領域系所未來課程規劃與相關研究之參考。
    本研究運用設計導向研究法,研究流程分為發現、整合、分析、設計、發展、應用、評鑑、結果,共八階段進行教材的開發。研究對象為淡江大學教育科技學系大學部三年級學生,開發兩週共五小時之教材內容,教學採用陳密桃(1995)批判性思考教學模式,藉由影片觀賞與個案展演的方式引起學習者動機後進行講解說明,再以小組討論練習、互相解答及發表看法,使學習者在過程中不斷的進行反思,並輔以閱讀新聞短文與文章練習媒體訊息的分析、解讀技巧,增進批判性思考能力。研究經由專家評鑑提出教材內容之修改和建議,以及藉由學習者滿意度問卷瞭解學習者對於教材滿意程度與建議作為應用結果之討論。
    研究結果顯示專家認為教材教學流程豐富有趣,活動給予學習者許多反思機會,但時間較難掌握,建議實施前模擬評估,且教材字句須避免偏頗,教學上也要以客觀的角度陳述避免誘導,以提升學習者正確且全面的批判性思考能力。在學習者滿意度方面,學習者對於教材的接受度與滿意度皆高,並認同教材對於自身媒體能力是有幫助的,尤其是在接收與理解媒體訊息方面態度的轉變更為顯著,傾向會先以批判性思考的態度去面對媒體訊息。根據學習者滿意度問卷與課堂觀察提出教材之修改建議如下:1、將所呈現之影片剪輯至10分鐘內:避免學習者注意力轉移,以增進學習效果;2、活動二中增加小組討論的時間:給予學習者充分時間,進行深度的思考與討論;3、活動三的示範與練習題目數量調整:減少閱讀示範與練習題,提高學習者接受度;4、小組作業的題目提前確立避免重複:提前決定作業主題,避免學習者主題呈現重複。
    最後,本研究對於教材設計與未來研究建議包括:1、設計以學習者為取向的教材,瞭解學習者特性,以增加學習者學習動機;2、發展完整媒體素養課程,可規劃一系列之媒體素養課程,使學習者循序漸進的練習媒體素養能力;3、總結性評鑑階段增加訪談部分,以進一步給予教材深入之建議;4、針對不同年齡或領域發展符合之教材;5、針對批判性思考教學策略與媒體素養中可探討之議題進行規劃,以發展完備媒體素養教育領域之教材。
    In this generation where information shifts rapidly, messages can reach people only in seconds, but the truth may be twisted deliberately. Additionally, not everyone can interpret and understand the information correctly. Therefore, cultivating learners’ critical thinking to help them interpret the information in daily lives is very important. The purpose of this study was to examine the content of media literacy course as well as to use design-based research (DBR) to develop media literacy teaching material targeting at learners’ critical thinking skills. Expert review and learners’ satisfaction of the teaching material were also investigated to provide feedback for revision. The process of developing teaching material in this study can provide a basis for teacher of related areas when it comes to designing media literacy materials. The results of this study can also be a reference for departments in similar fields to plan for courses and future studies.
    Design-based research was applied in this study and implemented in eight phases to develop and assess the instructional material. The eight phases were discover, organize, analyze, design, implement, apply, evaluate and discuss the results. Learners in this study were junior students in the Department of Educational Technology in a private university. Five-hours teaching material in two consecutive weeks were developed. Expert review was then performed to gather information with regard to revising the teaching material. The research procedure was as follows. First, learners’ motivation was promoted by having them watch a news video clip. Learners were then put into groups to engage in a case study which they reflected and discussed with their peers. Finally, learners were given news articles to practice how to analyze and interpret information. The degree of satisfaction and suggestions from learners were collected through a learner satisfaction questionnaire.
    This study concluded that the experts thought the instructional activities were interesting which can provide learners many opportunities to reflect. However, the instructional time might be difficult to control; therefore, the experts suggested to carry out a pilot study before formal implementation. Furthermore, the wordings in the material should avoid subjective views; the instruction needs to demonstrate objectivity so that the learners can fully enhance their critical thinking abilities. From learner satisfaction, it showed that learners held positive attitudes toward the teaching material. They also expressed that the teaching material was helpful in terms of attitude change on receiving and understanding messages. According to the learner satisfaction questionnaire and the researcher’s observation in class, the revision of teaching material was proposed as follows.
    1.The video clip displayed in class should be less than 10 minutes to avoid learner distraction.
    2.Increase discussion time in activity 2 to give learners enough time to brainstorm.
    3.Reduce the number of examples and practice exercises in activity 3.
    4.Confirm with learners the topics of their group assignment as early as possible.
    Finally, suggestions for developing teaching material and conducting future studies are as follows.
    1.Design learner-centered teaching material to promote learner motivation.
    2.Plan series of media literacy courses so that learners can improve their media literacy ability step by step.
    3.Conduct interviews in summative evaluation to provide in-depth suggestions of the teaching material.
    4.Develop teaching materials targeting different ages or fields.
    5.Plan and develop potential discussion topics with regard to critical thinking in media literacy.
    顯示於類別:[教育科技學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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