|題名: ||批判性思考之教材發展與評鑑 : 以媒體素養單元為例|
|其他題名: ||Development and evaluation of critical thinking teaching material : a case study of media literacy unit|
|作者: ||莊智凱;Chuang, Chih-Kai|
|關鍵詞: ||媒體素養;批判性思考;設計導向研究法;Media literacy;Critical Thinking;design-based research|
|上傳時間: ||2014-01-23 13:26:34 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: ||在這資訊流動迅速的時代，只要短短的時間就能將訊息傳遞至許多人，但是可能隨著發起者主觀的註解，而扭曲了事實的真相，也並不是每個人都能正確解讀、判斷訊息，因此，培養學習者具備批判性思考面對日常生活中媒體訊息的媒體素養實為重要。本研究透過設計導向研究法（Design-based Research, DBR），開發與設計媒體素養之「批判性思考」教材，探討在媒體素養課程所需具備內涵，再進一步進行專家評鑑與學習者滿意度測試，藉由探索開發與設計教材之過程，能進一步提供相關領域之教師作為規劃媒體素養課程與教材開發之依據以及作為相關領域系所未來課程規劃與相關研究之參考。|
In this generation where information shifts rapidly, messages can reach people only in seconds, but the truth may be twisted deliberately. Additionally, not everyone can interpret and understand the information correctly. Therefore, cultivating learners’ critical thinking to help them interpret the information in daily lives is very important. The purpose of this study was to examine the content of media literacy course as well as to use design-based research (DBR) to develop media literacy teaching material targeting at learners’ critical thinking skills. Expert review and learners’ satisfaction of the teaching material were also investigated to provide feedback for revision. The process of developing teaching material in this study can provide a basis for teacher of related areas when it comes to designing media literacy materials. The results of this study can also be a reference for departments in similar fields to plan for courses and future studies.
Design-based research was applied in this study and implemented in eight phases to develop and assess the instructional material. The eight phases were discover, organize, analyze, design, implement, apply, evaluate and discuss the results. Learners in this study were junior students in the Department of Educational Technology in a private university. Five-hours teaching material in two consecutive weeks were developed. Expert review was then performed to gather information with regard to revising the teaching material. The research procedure was as follows. First, learners’ motivation was promoted by having them watch a news video clip. Learners were then put into groups to engage in a case study which they reflected and discussed with their peers. Finally, learners were given news articles to practice how to analyze and interpret information. The degree of satisfaction and suggestions from learners were collected through a learner satisfaction questionnaire.
This study concluded that the experts thought the instructional activities were interesting which can provide learners many opportunities to reflect. However, the instructional time might be difficult to control; therefore, the experts suggested to carry out a pilot study before formal implementation. Furthermore, the wordings in the material should avoid subjective views; the instruction needs to demonstrate objectivity so that the learners can fully enhance their critical thinking abilities. From learner satisfaction, it showed that learners held positive attitudes toward the teaching material. They also expressed that the teaching material was helpful in terms of attitude change on receiving and understanding messages. According to the learner satisfaction questionnaire and the researcher’s observation in class, the revision of teaching material was proposed as follows.
1.The video clip displayed in class should be less than 10 minutes to avoid learner distraction.
2.Increase discussion time in activity 2 to give learners enough time to brainstorm.
3.Reduce the number of examples and practice exercises in activity 3.
4.Confirm with learners the topics of their group assignment as early as possible.
Finally, suggestions for developing teaching material and conducting future studies are as follows.
1.Design learner-centered teaching material to promote learner motivation.
2.Plan series of media literacy courses so that learners can improve their media literacy ability step by step.
3.Conduct interviews in summative evaluation to provide in-depth suggestions of the teaching material.
4.Develop teaching materials targeting different ages or fields.
5.Plan and develop potential discussion topics with regard to critical thinking in media literacy.