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    Title: 俄羅斯加入世界貿易組織(WTO)之國際政治經濟學分析
    Other Titles: International political economy analysis of Russia's accession to WTO
    Authors: 張師褘;Chang, Shi-Hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    林湘義;Lin, Hsiang-Yi
    Keywords: 俄羅斯加入世界貿易組織;國際政治經濟學;國際建制理論;霸權穩定理論;地緣經濟學理論;Russia's accession to WTO;International Political Economy;International regime theory;Hegemonic Stability Theory;Geo-economics
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:23:35 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1990年冷戰結束,隨著國際局勢的變動,經濟議題在國際關係中受到全球的關注。經濟貿易自由化和區域性整合是國際間近年來最常見的合作模式,而世界貿易組織(WTO)更是當今最重要的經貿組織之一,加入世界貿易組織一直是蘇聯與俄羅斯既定的目標,在其協商談判的過程中經歷戈爾巴喬夫、葉爾欽、普丁、梅德維傑夫四位領導人,總共歷時18年,隨著歐美各國的支持與爭辯,在農業補貼、能源價格、關稅障礙、服務業准入的各項議題中努力融入全球的經濟發展。如今於2012年8月23日俄羅斯成為世界貿易組織第156個成員國,對全球經貿結構遂扮演一個不容忽視的角色。
    國際政治經濟學領域以國際建制理論(International Regime Theory)和霸權穩定理論(Hegemonic Stability Theory)來分析世界貿易組織的研究較為稀少,本研究嘗試藉由這兩個理論與地緣經濟學理論(Geo-economics)來檢證俄羅斯加入世界貿易組織對該國的政治經濟影響。大國地位的轉變與歷史的抉擇,國際建制型態的區域性合作逐漸成為國際政治經濟中各國之間競爭與維護自身國家利益的關鍵,能夠擁有影響全球經濟發展的主導權與發言權,從霸權穩定的角度來觀察,身為全球主要經濟體之一的俄羅斯,發展經濟與現代化,WTO是一種工具,可望藉此重返歐亞強國之列,並推動世界多邊貿易體系的發展和完整。
    過研究俄羅斯選擇成為世界貿易組織成員國的原因及歷任領導人經濟政策的轉變如何影響其入世;而俄羅斯國內對於入世贊成與反對的看法為何,進一步分析俄羅斯入世的改革對其產業的影響,如逐年減讓的關稅和對世界貿易組織法規的承諾及利得為何,多極化的趨勢,意識形態不再重要;最後總結俄羅斯加入世界貿易組織的國際政治經濟分析,如美國眾議院隨後頒布廢除針對共產國家制定「傑克森-凡尼克修正案」,恢復最惠國待遇,使其貿易正常化的影響。
    After Cold War ended in 1990 and the transformation of international trend, economic problem becomes big issue to all over the world. The combination of free trade and regional integration is the most popular model in recent years. It is also one of the important economical components in World Trade Organization (WTO), which is always a goal for Russia and USSR. From Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Putin and Medvedev, all of them have big influence to Russia to become 156th members of WTO on 23rd August 2012, and it takes 18 years. During that time, most of Europe countries and America were keeps negotiating about agriculture subsidies, energy price, tax barrier, service industries, but Russia still aggressively wants to be in WTO. However, after many years of hard working, Russia becomes one of the powerful countries nowadays.

    There are two theories in international political economy, and they are International Regime Theory and Hegemonic Stability Theory, but both of them won’t use frequently to analyze WTO. When the great nation is slowly wearing away, to using International Regime Theory for regional cooperation becomes the fastest way to maintain their own benefit and the competition with other countries. If Russia has the right to make decision that can effect WTO’s policies, it will become the tool for growing capitalism to Russia, and this will help them to become one of the great power in Eurasia. However, it is not only for their well, but also helping global economy getting better.

    By this research, we can know how important of policies that Russia presidents made will impact to join WTO, and how Russia’s citizens for or against about it. Such as tariff reduction per year for domestic industry, and any favorable trading condition granted to one country must be provided for all other members as well as WTO’s agreement. In conclusion, the world is moving deeper into multi-polarity, so historical of ideology is not that important anymore. Therefore, the United States of America will abrogate the Jackson-Vanik amendment for more opportunities for growing cooperation with Russia.
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