China has maritime actions since ancient times. However, from the point of view of China’s history, China rarely wage a war by ocean because of the tributary system and the threat of nomadic people. Most China’s surface warfare experience and area only happened in inland-river or lake. After First Opium War in 1840, western powers plan to invaded southeast china, the Qing Dynasty began to hence the defense of ocean. ( attach importance to maritime defense) After 1874 Japan invaded Taiwan, Qing government officials made some intense debates about coast defense and border defense. The following year Qing government decided to make coast defense and border defense are same important national defense as strategy thinking, that are maritime defense in east, border defense in west. The importance of coastal and border defense were first time identical. Qing government still concerned the Northwest, but began to organize modern western-style navy, among Late Qing Navy got the most attention from Qing government, once became the best navy in East Asia.
In the beginning of CCP(Chinese Communist Party) created, it expect to build a navy to protect the area coastal and riverside. As a result of the change of international environment and the pressure that Soviet Union (USSR) garrisoned in China’s north-west frontier, the developing of PLA navy was pushed out for a long time. After Deng Xiaoping being the leader of CCP, modernization was the main national policy of CCP, and kept the moderate relationship with United States and Soviet Union, from 1985 CCP started to abort Mao Zedong’ strategic guidance that is traditional people’s war, reexamined position of PLA navy in nation defense. With the large-scale development in southeastern coastal areas of China and export-oriented industrial structure, CCP gradually attach importance to how expand the defense in southeastern coastal areas to make safety and using ocean power. Liu Huaqing was the Commander of Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy, he advanced near coast defensive strategy as CCP’s national defense strategy and defined the direction of PLA navy modern developing.
Due to Navy of Late Qing Dynasty from the beginning to end took 20 years, and in 1985 PLA navy had escaped the subordination from army, till now it takes 27 years. The thesis indicate that although difference of 100 years, the background to start and process of Navy of Late Qing Dynasty and PLA navy are quite the same with different political system and same cultural background. Since different international environment, security threats, and domestic environment, Qing Dynasty and CCP’s attitude in develop of the navy are different, resulting the development of both are different.