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    Title: 近代日本の道徳教育の研究 : 小学校修身教科書の分析を通して-
    Other Titles: 近代日本道德教育之研究 : 以小學修身教科書之分析為中心
    Research of the moral education in modern Japan : through analyzing the moral textbook used at the elementary school
    Authors: 林珮蓉;Lin, Pei-Rong
    Contributors: 淡江大學日本語文學系碩士班
    田世民;Tien, Shih-Min
    Keywords: 道德教育;修身教科書;尊崇天皇;國民性;教育敕語;Moral Education;moral textbooks;emperor worship;national character;Imperial Rescript on Education;道徳教育;天皇崇拝;国民性;教育勅語
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:14:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究透過分析小學修身教科書之內容,來回顧近代日本道德教育的變遷過程,並探討教科書的內容編輯與尊崇天皇之國民性的形成有何關連性。
    明治初期的日本為了迎頭趕上歐美列強,旋即積極吸取歐美國家的文明以推動日本近代化。明治五年頒布的「學制」正值此際,於是「學制」下之修身教育〈道德教育〉所使用的教科書也是從歐美國家之倫理道德書籍翻譯而來。但是在使用歐美倫理道德翻譯書之後,人民開始逐漸淡忘自國的傳統倫理道德,比方說對天皇盡忠等倫理。為了恢復日本傳統的倫理道德以及加強人民對天皇的效忠,明治十年代左右明治政府開始強化「忠孝仁義」為首的傳統儒教倫理,於是強調「忠孝」之儒教修身教科書取代了歐美倫理道德之翻譯修身教科書的使用。明治二十三年十月三十日頒布了「教育敕語」。「教育敕語」的主要目的在於強調「忠孝」倫理為所有道德之根基,以培養對天皇效忠的日本國民。「教育敕語」頒布之後,所有的修身教科書都以「教育敕語」為編纂基準及檢定標準。於焉檢定修身教科書開始問世。明治二十年代後半,開始出現修身教科書國定化之議論。明治三十五年爆發了「教科書疑獄事件」。事件爆發後國定本的教科書制度開始實施。自此到二次大戰結束期間,國定修身教科書成為貫徹教育敕語宗旨的主軸。亦即以培養對天皇效忠之日本國民作為教育的目的。
    經過以上的探討,我們可以發現翻譯修身教科書之外的修身教科書在培養日本人尊崇天皇、效忠天皇上,發揮了重要的角色。然而,比起儒教修身教科書或是檢定修身教科書,國定修身教科書在培養日本人尊崇天皇、效忠天皇上,更是發揮了相當重要的角色。因為儒教修身教科書只是讓學生去背誦裡面的內容,檢定修身教科書只是將道德題目作枯燥乏味的排列。而國定修身教科書則不同於前兩者,它將歷史人物的故事納入書中以喚起學生興趣,並藉此提升學生對內容的理解。總而言之,我們可以說國定修身教科書在培養日本人尊崇天皇、效忠天皇之國民性時發揮了最主要的角色功能。
    This research is something which looks back at the moral education in modern Japan through the content of the moral textbook used at elementary school.
    First, although it is a translation moral textbook of the "school system", in order to advance westernization, Japan introduced the material civilization of the West actively during the period "school system" hit in the early Meiji period. So, the textbook used for moral education will also be translated from the Western textbooks used for moral education. However, traditional ethics morality peculiar to Japan is fading gradually by use of such a translation moral textbook. In order to regain it, in the Meiji 10s, the Confucian ethic has been enhanced. Finally, the Confucianism moral textbook centering on "loyalty and filial piet" will be used instead of the translation moral textbook at last. When the "Imperial Rescript on Education" was carried out in Meiji 23, the moral textbook will be altogether edited based on it and approved by it. However, from the end of the Meiji 20s, it came to discuss about the moral textbook of government control. When the "textbook scandal" had arisen in Meiji 35, the moral textbook changed from the censorship system to the government control system in next Meiji 36. Now the moral education based on the "Imperial Rescript on Education" is performed with the government control moral textbook.
    If the above consideration is seen, it can be said that each moral textbook except the translation moral textbook have played the important role in training the ethics of the loyalty to the Emperor. However, the government control moral textbook is considered to have played the larger role because it incorporated story to make it easy to understand.
    Appears in Collections:[日本語文學系暨研究所 ] 學位論文

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