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    Title: 法國施行<民事共同責任協定>之社會文化影響
    Other Titles: Social and cultural impacts of PACS in France
    Authors: 林潔;Lin, Chieh
    Contributors: 淡江大學法國語文學系碩士班
    吳錫德
    Keywords: 民事共同責任協定;同性婚姻;同性伴侶;civil solidarity pact;equal rights;homosexual couples;PACS;couples homosexuelles
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:14:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 法國於1999年通過了〈民事共同責任協定〉(Pacte civil de solidarite, PACS),該協定是法國在《民法》上,第一個通過承認與保障同性戀伴侶合法結合的法律。兩個同性或異性的成年人得以伴侶的身分,維持實質上的穩定和持續的關係,並簽訂民事協定,以享有一些法律權利與保障。

    本論文探討在異性戀為主流價值下,法國法律對同志族群的權益保障到何等程度?〈民事共同責任協定〉的通過代表了什麼文化意義與其影響?以及同性戀者如何去爭取他們的平等權利與這之中產生了什麼樣的影響?換句話說,本論文旨在探討在同志爭取平等權利的過程中,〈民事共同責任協定〉在意義上所扮演的角色以及它於社會文化上所產生的影響。尤其探討於九十年代末之後,法律情況所造成的法國政治與社會對同性議題態度的變革。最後對於政府的態度及同性戀者在法律上目前未能獲得的權利,於未來的可能性作研究。因此,本論文並不著重於探討該協定的法律內容及形式要件,而是探究其前因、立法過程與實施後產生的後續影響。

    主要的時間點從1970年代起至2013年四月法國國會正式通過同性婚姻及領養法案的這段期間為研究目標。先從過去同性戀者在法國社會上的情況談起,至七十年代在性別研究的發展下所產生對於同性戀議題的論述。接著分析在同性論述的發展影響下於七十年代開始同志團體所進行的運動過程與模式。探討法國同志要求法律上的認同的前因,〈民事共同責任協定〉立法辯論期間各界所採取的立場與態度,事件發展的因果關係與妥協因素,以及施行後真正的現況。最後就同性戀者進一步的行動,與整個過程中法國政府、宗教團體、社會大眾面對同性戀議題所採取的立場與態度等。依據時序逐步探討過程發展與轉變的因素,試以整合了解在法國法律中涉及同性戀者權利的變化情況與相關法律所產生的整個文化上、社會上的整體性影響。
    Homosexual behavior has always been a part of human existence. Up to the early twentieth century, most homosexuals continued to keep their sexual orientation hidden because of the prejudice against them. In the 1970s, French gays and lesbians formed organizations to fight the discriminatory laws, they wanted to abolish the laws that criminalized homosexual acts. After that, homosexuals have fought to obtain formal recognition of their relationships, they want civil rights protection. The rights of same-sex couples to marry and the rights of gays as adoptive parents are two of the most controversial issues.
    In 1999, the law of the PACS(Pacte civil de solidarite)passed in France. The government opted for the middle ground, implemented a new institution, a domestic partnership regime. The PACS is the first law which admits and protects homosexual couples in France. The PACS is a form of civil union between two adults for organizing their common life. Both heterosexual and homosexual couples can register PACS, it provides equal benefits to all kind of couples who can enjoy less benefits and rights than those provide by a marriage. This new institution can be seen as recognition of the homosexual relationship, but it dose not have the right to be called a marriage and does not confer the right to adopt children. After the PACS passed, French same-sex couples are demanding more and more openly the right which has not been admitted in the name of equality. The purpose of the research is to find the meaning and sociocultural impacts of the PACS in the way of homosexuals fight for the equal rights.
    Appears in Collections:[法國語文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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