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    Title: Analyse esthétique du concept d'<> d'Henri Cartier-Bresson
    Other Titles: 決定性瞬間攝影美學概念分析
    Aesthetic analysis of the "decisive instant" of henri cartier-breton
    Authors: 張渟;Chang, Ting
    Contributors: 淡江大學法國語文學系碩士班
    徐鵬飛;Boileau, Gilles
    Keywords: 美學;攝影;決定性瞬間;布列松;明室;文心雕龍;aesthetic;photography;Decisive Instant;Henri Cartier-Bresson;La chamber claire;Wenxin diaolong
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:14:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在我們這個年代中,攝影似乎是一件極為簡便,並且十分普及的人文活動。幾乎無人不會拍照,人們用攝影記錄捷運裡的廣告看板,我們在社群網站上分享親友聚會的照片,由於數位攝影術的簡便實用,人們拍張照只需要按下快門。然而,攝影是否真如人們所想的只要按下快門這般簡單?或許我們認為攝影十分容易,事實上,攝影是需要相當的條件同時成立下,構成一個機會才能進行的事。也可以說,現今的人對於攝影的本質所知甚少。因此,假使我們回頭來瞭解二十世紀的攝影,或許會提供我們不同於當代攝影本質的解讀。

    本論文以二十世紀的法國攝影大師—亨利 卡提耶˙布列松,他所提出的「決定性瞬間」攝影論點,作為一種瞭解攝影本質途徑。「決定性瞬間」可說是攝影學中,被許多攝影師奉為信條的一種攝影美學。作為攝影師透過鏡頭尋找的影像,它可被視為是一種完美地呈現攝影定格的表現美學。人們提及攝影,無法不提及「決定性瞬間」,對觀看照片的人而言,也可視為是一種解讀影像詮釋的看法。

    在這篇論文中,將透過「決定性瞬間」來研究人們對於攝影影像的感知,研究決定性瞬間如何在沒有數位攝影技術的輔助下,實現在影像畫面中,同時透過這個攝影美學的解讀,來思考觀眾和照片之間的聯繫;並試著分析布列松的部分照片、研究其攝影作品和探討「決定性瞬間」在照片中的顯現。

    為實行這個研究,本文將借鏡兩篇評論文獻:羅蘭巴特的《明室》( La chambre claire - Note sur la photographie)與劉勰的《文心雕龍》,提供東西方視點的美學賞析,運用這兩本著作中的部分觀點,作為本論文的研究方法,同時架構本文評析「決定性瞬間」獨立的見解。

    本論文分為四個部分,首先從《明室》此書歸納出羅蘭巴特對攝影的解讀,提供接下來分析影像的參考論述;接著節錄《文心雕龍》中四個篇章,參詳東方文學評論中的美學解析,從創作者、閱覽者以及評論者的角度來研究「決定性瞬間」。第二個部分討論關於布列松從事攝影歷程的契機,分析關於他各時期的攝影作品及演變,節選出較具代表性的影像來詮釋與對照,布列松攝影形式的轉變與影響。第三個部分為研究「決定性瞬間」在布列松的攝影思維中,所呈現的影像本質、此概念在影像中的界定、布列松對「決定性瞬間」的實踐以及部分關於「決定性瞬間」的質疑論點。最後一個部分將透過《文心雕龍》的方法論:〈原道〉、〈神思〉、〈情采〉與〈知音〉,藉劉勰評論體系重新解讀「決定性瞬間」。

    在布列松的攝影美學分析中,不在於找出「決定性瞬間」存在照片中的證明,而是在當代供我們反觀數位攝影的一種思路。如同我們在攝影的同時,思考我們的攝影意識、攝影感知與攝影的寓意。或許關於攝影的爭議會不斷地產生新的辯證,但「決定性瞬間」不論在何時仍然是攝影美學的依據與詮釋。
    Abstract
    In a world where digital cameras are used by everyone, we usually take such device for granted : we take the camera and shoot, as if there is nothing more to be reconsiderated in this action. As a result, in this research we intend to return to the concept of « the decisive moment » proposed by Henri Cartier-Bresson in the begining of twentieth century, in order to rexplore (elaborate) the possible relationships inter the photo-reader, the photo and the photagrapher. At the same time, our research is based on two documents: La chambre claire-Note sur la photographie by Roland Barthes and Wenxin diaolong (《文心雕龍》) by Liu Xin (劉勰) which provide the examples of aesthetics analysis from both east and west.
    In this research, firstly, we revise the book of Barthes to know how he analyses the aesthetic of image. Secondly, an analysis of the photos of Cartier-Bresson is required. Thirdly, we go into the concept “the decisive moment” and compare this idea with other forms of arts. Finally, by using Wenxin diaolong, we try to understand the western born technique in eastern aesthetic theory.
    The photographe, especially the action “shoot” requires specific conditions to create one chance of shooting. Furthermore, the photo actually, preexisted in the mind of the photographer while the result photo is one of the interpretations of the thought of the photographer. Meanwhile, the photo-reader might not read the photo as the photographer read, thus create many interpretations while only “one moment” preserves in the photo. To sum up, this research provides both the vision east and west considering the analyses of photo and finds out many relationships possible inter the photo-reader, the photo and the photographer in nowadays world where their relationships seems to be simple and nearly dead.
    Appears in Collections:[法國語文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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