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    Title: Effects of textual modifications on incidental phrasal verb acquisition through second language reading by Taiwanese learners of English
    Other Titles: 文本修飾對台灣第二外語學習者透過閱讀習得片語動詞的影響
    Authors: 江悅慈;Chiang, Yueh-Tzu
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    范瑞玲;Fahn, Rueih-Lirng
    Keywords: 英文閱讀;片語動詞;文本修飾;閱讀頻率;incidental reading;phrasal verbs;textual modifications;multiple exposures
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:14:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文旨在探索有效及有益的方法透過閱讀習得片語動詞,而非藉由直接的教學。由於片語動詞結構(verb- particle)在本質上無清楚明顯的界線(Bishop, 2004b),第二外語學習者常常對於片語動詞結構產生困難,尤其是文本依賴的情況,(亦即第二外語學習者直接從文本中讀字,不藉由他人的教導)。因此本研究探討文本修飾的影響,(為專注語言意義暨兼顧語言形式的一種教學法[focus on form]),這個方法使得目標項目在學習者知覺上能顯著,且期待能透過閱讀吸引學習者的注意力。本論文所探索的文本修飾,包括文字提升法,和修辭釋義法,這些方法對台灣第二外語學習者透過閱讀習得片語動詞的影響。本論文亦聚焦於學習者接觸文本的頻率,也就是目標片語動詞重複出現在一到五次的文章上。
    參與者接觸十個目標片語動詞,透過閱讀六個版本的五篇不同文章,而這五篇文章包含十個目標片語動詞,也就是說學習者皆閱讀文章一至五次,六個不同版本代表六個不同的組別或組合。文字提升法的文章包括所有的目標片語動詞粗體字,以便在閱讀時增加學習者的注意力及專注力。外顯的修辭釋義文章則是在所有的目標片語後面插入which means,再加上該片語動詞的同義字或解釋;而內顯的修辭釋義文章則是插入該片語動詞的同位語(appositive)的解釋。本研究採用二因子變異係數分析統計與重複測量分析法,檢視文本修飾和接觸文章頻率在兩個後測上的表現,兩個後測分別為片語動詞形式-辨識測驗及片語動詞意義-辨識測驗。另外,本研究並採用階層式線性分析法,分析文字提升中之兩個階層,即片語動詞有粗體和沒粗體字,修辭釋義中之三個階層,即外顯、內顯和沒有修飾,以及接觸文本頻率在習得片語動詞的表現上,透過形式-辨識測驗及片語動詞意義-辨識測驗來檢視。
    本研究結果顯示:(1) 文字提升法和修辭釋義法對習得片語動詞有正面的影響力,然而此正面效果經過一段時間後,對於學習片語動詞的形式較有影響,而非學習片語動詞的意涵,(2)外顯或內顯的修辭釋義法在學習片語動詞上並無顯著性的差別,(3)第二外語學習者接觸越多次的片語動詞,也就是說透過閱讀越多次這些片語動詞重複出現的不同文章,能夠學習越多的片語動詞,而學習者需要重複接觸目標片語動詞的基本次數為四到五次,再者,如能再加上文字提升法的提示,此正面效果會更擴大和顯著,(4)第二外語學習者受益最多的方法為在片語動詞後方置入外顯修辭釋義法,再加上文字提升法的粗體字。最後,教學實務上的建議根據測驗的結果也會提出。
    The dissertation is to explore the effective and beneficial methods in the acquisition of phrasal verbs in incidental reading contexts, where no explicit or direct instruction of the phrasal verbs is implemented. The fundamental consideration is that due to the unclear boundaries of phrasal verb (PV) structure (Bishop, 2004b), L2 learners constantly have difficulties to signal this verb- particle pattern when there is text-dependent condition (i.e. L2 learners read the words directly from written texts). In this sense, the current study investigates the effects of textual modification (a technique under focus on form approach), an effort to make the target item perceptually salient, and presumably to draw learners’ attention via reading. The current study investigates the effects of textual modification entailing typographical enhancement and lexical elaboration on the acquisition of English phrasal verbs through reading by Taiwan EFL learners. It also sheds light on exposure frequency, which the target phrasal verbs occurred from one to five times on a number of written texts, on incidental acquisition of phrasal verbs.
    Two hundred and ninety-eight pre-intermediate junior-college participants underwent a three-month experiment. Participants were exposed to 10 target PVs by reading one of six versions of five experimental written texts containing these PVs with one to five time exposures. Five reading texts were written by a native speaker of English with similar topic schemata. A typographical enhanced text contained all PVs set in boldface in order to increase learners’ focal attention to the PVs while reading. Explicitly lexically elaborated texts had all PVs immediately followed by which means plus a synonym-or definition-type PV explanation, whereas the PVs in implicitly lexically elaborated texts were immediately followed by an appositive PV explanation only. The study adopted a two-way ANOVA with repeated measure analysis to examine the effects on textual modifications and exposure frequency on form-recognition and meaning-recognition posttests. The study as well employed a Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) design in analyzing typographical enhancement with two levels (enhanced, unenhanced) and type of lexical elaboration with three levels (explicit, implicit, unelaborated) as well as exposure frequency on the performances of PV acquisition as measured by form-meaning recognition posttests.
    The results of the study overall displayed that (1) both typographical enhancement and lexical elaboration had positive effects on the acquisition of phrasal verbs, but the effects perpetuated over time on form rather than meaning acquisition. (2) No differential effects were found in terms of explicit or implicit devices of lexical elaboration on acquisition of target PVs. (3) The more exposure to the target PVs, the more PVs L2 learners acquire, with the threshold of four to five time repeated encounters of such PVs, and the learning effect was particularly magnified with the employment of typographic cues. (4) L2 Learners benefits the most from reading written texts that were explicitly lexical elaborated and with the PVs boldfaced. Pedagogical implications were proposed accordingly with the experimental findings.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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