|Abstract: ||學習者的認知學習風格扮演了決定學習者有意識或潛意識的學習偏好,而這樣的學習偏好會隨著時間及周圍環境改變.研究也指出英語單字的學習在第二外語學習上是一個重要的因素.因此,本研究基於機械式記憶理論及關鍵字記憶法,選擇複寫學習策略 (Copy Writing)、字卡學習策略 (Word Card Keeping) 及讀出 (Reading Aloud) 的學習策略.並應用在場地獨立 (Field Independent) 及場地依賴 (Field Dependent) 不同認知學習風格的學習者上,目的在提供台灣的大學生基於個人的認知學習風格選擇合適的英語單字學習策略。|
為了檢視以上三種字彙學習策略及學習者的學習風格之間的關聯性及效果,本研究使用Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT)當作工具來區分244位非英語主修的大學生的學習風格,並以三分法的方式,將得分16分以上的學生歸為場地獨立 (FI) 學習者,12分以下的學生歸為場地依賴 (FD) 學習者,而介於12至16分者視為無明顯學習風格者。因此,最後僅餘161位具有明顯學習風格的學生資料被用來分析並分為三組,分別是FI個人組、FD個人組及FD與FD合作學習組。
在歷經長達一年的先導實驗及十八週的實驗研究後,本研究指出七個主要的發現: (1) 在三個群組中所有使用字彙學習策略的參與學生皆顯示出對於英語字彙的顯著效果; (2) 對FI風格個人學習者及FD+FD的合作學習者,字卡學習策略及讀出的學習策略遠比複寫學習策略有顯著的效果; (3) 對FD風格學習者而言, 讀出的學習策略比其他二者在英語字彙量的進步上有更顯著的效果; (4) 比較學生在施以單字學習策略前後的學習態度,讀出學習策略使用者具有較正面的態度, 其次為字卡學習策略使用者, 而使用複寫學習策略的學生對於可快速或容易記單字的部份,顯示出負面的態度; (5) 雖然所有的學習者都同意使用單字學習策略做為部份的課堂活動來取代單字小考,然而,只有五分之三的人認為單字學習策略是有效的; (6) 超過二分之一的複寫學習策略及讀出學習策略使用者同意,即使沒有老師的規定,也會持續使用該策略,而卻只有五分之一的字卡策略學習者同意; (7) 從課堂的觀察得知,相較於FI或FD的個人學習,FD與FD合作學習者明顯建立了較好的互動環境但也有過份依賴的情況發生,而使得合作學習者完成課堂任務的速度慢於個人學習者。
The cognitive learning styles of learners are an influential factor with respect to a preference for conscious or subconscious learning. In addition, learners’ learning preferences are affected by time and learning environment. Several studies have shown that vocabulary was highlighted as an important element in second language learning. Therefore, the study was designed with respect to the theory of rote memorization and the keyword method to develop three vocabulary-learning strategies (i.e., the Copy Writing Strategy, the Word Card Strategy, and the Reading Aloud Strategy). Additionally, these three learning strategies were chosen and applied to learners with Field Independent (FI) and Field Dependent (FD) cognitive learning styles. Thus, the study attempted to provide Taiwanese university students with appropriate vocabulary learning strategies based on their cognitive learning styles.
In order to evaluate the correlation and effects of three mentioned vocabulary learning strategies and learner’ learning styles, this study first used the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) as a measurement to determine 244 non-English major university freshmen’s learning tendencies. It was decided to treat the scores as a trichotomy, with the GEFT scores of 16 or more being classified as learners with a FI tendency and those with scores of 12 or under being classified as having a FD tendency. In the end, a total of 161 freshmen with distinct GEFT learning style tendencies were chosen to be involved in the study and grouped as FI, FD individuals, or FD+FD cooperative learning.
After one-year-long pilot study as well as a period of formal study lasting eighteen weeks, this study produced seven main findings. (1) For all the participants of the three groups, any of the three strategies displayed positively significant effects on their vocabulary performance, though the Copy Writing Strategy demonstrates the smallest effect. (2) For FI cognitive style individual learners and FD+FD cooperative group learners, the Word Card Keeping and Reading Aloud vocabulary strategies displayed more effective learning results than the Copy Writing strategy. (3) For FD cognitive style learners, the Reading Aloud Vocabulary Strategy presented the largest improvement on vocabulary size in comparison with the other two strategies. (4) After receiving the vocabulary learning strategies, the Reading Aloud Strategy learners showed the most positive change in learning attitude, followed by the Word Card Keeping Strategy learners. However, the Copy Writing Strategy learners disagreed more with the statement that they were able to remember English quickly or easily, which resulted in a negative learning attitude overall. (5) All participants in the three groups agreed to involve vocabulary learning strategies as a class activity to replace vocabulary quizzes, with only approximately three-fourths of them agreed with the efficiency of the vocabulary learning strategies. (6) More than half of the copy writing and reading-aloud learners agreed to persistently use the learning strategy they received without requiring regulations from the teacher, whereas only approximately one-fifth of the word card learners agreed. (7) From the classroom observations, it was obvious that the cooperative learning learners created a more interactive learning atmosphere than individuals did, but too much dependence occurs sometimes, which causes cooperative learning learners to complete the class tasks slower than the individual learners did.
Based on learners’ cognitive styles, it is expected that these findings could provide researchers with a new consideration when applying appropriate English vocabulary learning strategies for students to employ, as well as facilitate learners’ vocabulary growth, increase their learning motivation, and develop more positive learning attitudes toward English vocabulary learning.