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    Title: Eco-humans, eco-killers and environmental protection in five eco-novels
    Other Titles: 五本生態小說中的生態人、生態破壞者與環境保護
    Authors: 黃淑瓊;Huang, Shu-Ch''Iung
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    楊銘塗
    Keywords: 環境保護;生態人;生態破壞者;野性;萬靈論;食物鏈平衡;基因變轉;禁漏原則;environmental protection;Eco-humans;Eco-killers;wildness;animism;The food chain;Transgenics;The precautionary principle
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:13:50 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在「環境保護」這個議題中,深層生態的生態中心觀、動植物權的生命中心觀、阿爾多斯‧李奧普的食物鏈平衡主張、和大衛‧索羅等自然書寫中的荒野美學為主流。這些主張有其重要性,但它們相對地也淡化了人類的重要性。本論文主張環境保護的成敗與生態人阻止生態破壞者危害環境的努力和力量息息相關,本論文也主張藉文學作品傳達生態概念,可以提升一般人的生態意識以壯大生態人的力量。此主題意在突顯人類的角色在環境保護中的重要性。
    從生態學的角度來看,人可分為生態人、生態破壞者,及處於灰色地帶的一般人。生態人有的以生態科學的知識來改變無知的生態殺手,因而使環境生命(亦即野性)得到保護;有的偏重萬靈論來建立生態良知、張顯人和生物及環境的靈性輪迴關係,以此使奄奄一息的環境復活;有的以良知來審視生態殺手用解剖改造動物或基因變轉所造成的環境及其地域眾生的悲劇,並把這悲劇呈現在世人面前,用以警惕世人莫重蹈覆轍;有的因看到官商破壞公共荒野,而訴之環境行動主義,以顛覆行動保護荒野環境。
    本論文共分為六章。第一章首先說明環境、荒野、野性的意涵,並以條列式說明生態人和生態破壞者的特質。再以中外相關文獻來申論「環境保護」即保護環境「野性」的意涵。「野性」依蓋瑞‧施耐德與其他生態作家如索羅等的主張,已由否定含意轉變為肯定品質。它是生命奔放、能量、潛力發展、尤其是美麗、健康、精神力量等的同義字。保護環境,因此不但要保護地方,更要保護山川、農村、海洋、島嶼、荒野、及城市。本論文著重的環境因此以這六類為探討對象。
    本論文第二章到第六章依序探討巴巴拉‧金熟柏的《豐饒的夏天》、琳達‧霍根的《鯨魚的子民》、霍伯喬治‧威爾斯的《莫洛博士之島》、瑪格麗特‧愛特伍的《末世男女》和艾德華‧阿畢的《顛覆行動派》等五本生態小說,並以此來支持本論文生態人和環境保護主題。這幾章分別用生態學知識混合食物鏈整體論、萬靈論、資本主義猖獗對環境生靈干擾的視角、防止科技濫用的禁漏原則、環境行動論述、以及其他相關生態論述來佐證本論文推理的可靠性。本論文把《顛覆行動派》放在結論前的最後一章,用它的開放結局來說明「環境保護」是永世不會終結的任務。
    本論文結論強調生態人只要能發揮功能就可阻止生態破壞者的活動,而環境及其領域上的眾生就可得到保護;否則後果不堪設想。但因資本主義和一般人的 無知與自私,生態人必須永遠努力不懈,而且一般大眾的生態意識必須被提高,才能完成保護環境的任務。
    In the issue of environmental protection, ecocentrism embraced by deep ecologists, biocentrism upheld by animal and plant rights supporters, the concept of balance in the food chain presented by Aldo Leopold, and the aesthetics of wilderness in David Thoreau’s nature writing are the mainstream thoughts. These thoughts, though important in themselves, relatively neglect the importance of the role of humans in protecting the environment. My thesis is that the success or failure of environmental protection resides mainly in the effort and strength of eco-humans to deter the harm precipitated by eco-killers and that it is necessary to raise the ecological consciousness on the part of the common people through ecological discourses and literary works. This will strengthen the efforts of eco-humans to protect the environment. The aim of this thesis is to foreground the importance of humanity’s role in the protection of the environment.
    From the ecological perspective, people can be divided into three groups: eco-humans, eco-killers and people in the gray area, that is, the common people. Some eco-humans make use of their ecological knowledge to change the eco-killers’ harmful attitude into environmental friendliness so that the life force of the environment, that is the wildness of the environment and wildlife in it, can keep unfolding. Some rely on animism to stimulate the ecological consciousness of eco-killers and the common people, highlighting the transmigration of the soul among humans, other life forms, and non-life forms. This will help revive the dying environment. Some examine with their conscience the tragedy or disaster caused to the environment and animated entities in it by the scientific eco-killers who have engaged in changing the bodies of animals for human purposes through vivisection or transgenic engineering. This tragedy or disaster serves as a warning to people on earth against repeating the same wrongdoing. Others, seeing that the wilderness is on the verge of devastation due to the development projects launched by capitalistic businessmen and the ignorant government officials, cannot but resort to sabotage as a necessary evil to preserve the wilderness.
    This thesis is composed of six chapters. The first chapter clarifies what the environment, the wilderness, and wildness refer to, explains the definitions of eco-humans and eco-killers, and brings the characteristics of eco-humans to the fore by enumerating seventeen rules for eco-humans’ behavior. Then relevant documentation is provided to support the point that to protect the environment is to protect wildness. Wildness, according to Gary Snyder and other nature writers such as David Thoreau, has changed in meaning from a negative thing to a positive one: wildness is the unfolding of life, energy, and potential. It is the synonym of beauty, health, and spiritual strength. To protect the environment, people should, besides protecting a place, be more devoted to protecting rivers, mountains, farmland, villages, oceans, islands, wilderness areas, as well as cities. For this reason, this thesis focuses on the discussions of the ecological problems in the previously mentioned types of environments.
    To support the above-mentioned argument, the following five chapters respectively explore the activities of eco-humans and eco-killers and their impact on the environment in the five eco-novels: Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer, Linda Hogan’s People of the Whale, H. G. Wells’s The Island of Dr. Moreau, Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake, and Edward Abbey’s The Monkey Wrench Gang. Moreover, the various concepts of ecology, holism, animism, the impact of the prevailing capitalism on the habitats of humans and non-humans, the precautionary principle, environmental activism, and the relevant ecological theories are used as supporting materials to enhance the reliability of logical reasoning in this thesis. The Monkey Wrench Gang is put just before the concluding chapter because its open ending signifies that environmental protect is a never-ending task.
    The concluding chapter emphasizes that if eco-humans can function efficiently, eco-killers can be deterred from doing harmful activities to the environment; otherwise, the scenario of the possible consequences is unimaginable. On account of capitalism prevailing and the common people being ignorant and selfish, eco-humans should be persistent with their dedication to environmental protection and the common people’s ecological consciousness should be raised all the time to back up eco-humans.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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