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    Title: A study of the correlation between EFL learners' cultural background and refusal speech acts
    Other Titles: 外語學習者之文化背景暨拒絕語言行為相關性之研究
    Authors: 張菁菁;Chang, Ching-Ching
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    陳秀潔
    Keywords: 拒絕語言行為;跨文化適應力;語用移轉;涵化;語用能力;跨文化溝通;Refusal Speech Acts;cross-cultural adaptability;pragmatic transfer;Acculturation;pragmatic competence;intercultural communication
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:13:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究之目的在比較中、美文化中,因社會與情境變素影響下,拒絕語言行為使用之異同,並藉由質化與量化的分析,探討跨文化認知對拒絕語言行為之影響。

    受測者包含40位以英文為母語,在美國加州求學的大學生及120位在台灣以中文為母語的大學生與大學英語教師。在台灣受試者當中,包含40位英語系學生、40位非英語系學生以及40位大學英語教師。為了解受試者的拒絕語言行為及跨文化認知,本研究採用三種研究工具,分別為情境對談補全測驗(Discourse Completion Test)、跨文化適應力檢核測驗(Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory)及文化背景與跨文化經驗問卷(The Background Information and Cross-Cultural Experience Questionnaire),並輔以訪談收集拒絕行為差異之相關資料。

    結果顯示無論是擁有中華文化或美國文化背景的受測者皆以間接拒絕語言行為作為主要的拒絕方式,在回應請求情境時尤甚。跨文化的差異存在於直接拒絕語言行為及其他具有文化獨特性的拒絕語言行為 (Other Refusal Speech Acts)。直接拒絕語言行為的差異與受試者的文化背景相關,而其他之拒絕語言行為的使用則和社會因素及受測者自身文化背景相關,並反映出該文化獨特的語言習性。

    中、美文化中,受測者使用其他之拒絕語言行為之用意均為滿足面子語言行為(Face-Satisfying Acts)。英文系學生使用間接拒絕語言行為較為頻繁且呈現較高的母語語用移轉 (L1 pragmatic transfer)。大學英語教師較能運用中、美國文化獨特的語言習性及技巧來表達。涵化(acculturation) 則影響有外國經驗的受測者。跨文化效力似與語言程度和跨文化經驗正相關。本文除說明研究受限制之外並提出本研究之發現在英語教學上之應用與建議。
    This study is a comparative study of refusal speech acts in Chinese and American cultures. The aim is to reveal cross-cultural universalities and variations of refusal speech acts in respect to the effects of social and contextual factors. It also explores the impact of cross-cultural awareness on refusal speech acts by means of both quantitative and qualitative analyses.

    Participants were 40 native English speakers from California, USA, and 120 Chinese English speakers in northern Taiwan, whose English was a Foreign Language—40 English majors, 40 non-English majors, and 40 college English teachers—with varied cross-cultural experience. To elicit the use of refusal speech acts and the reflections of cross-cultural awareness, three instruments—the Discourse Completion Tasks (DCT), the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI), and the background information and cross-cultural experience questionnaire—were adopted. Interviews were conducted to offer in-depth information for variations of refusal speech acts.

    Results suggest that the dominance of indirect refusal speech acts was a cross-cultural universality and especially favorable in requests. Cross-cultural variations were indicated in direct and other refusal speech acts. The different use of direct refusals was tied to the convention of the native culture. The choice of other refusal speech acts was relevant to social variables and the native culture, as it was cultural-specific. Other refusal speech acts typically functioned as Face-Satisfying Acts in both Chinese and American cultures. English majors were more indirect in refusals and higher in L1 pragmatic transfer than non-English majors. College English teachers were flexible in using language features from both Chinese and American cultures. The effect of acculturation on refusal speech acts was revealed for those with overseas experience. Cross-cultural effectiveness seemed to positively correlate to language proficiency and cross-cultural experience. Pedagogical implications and research limitations are also addressed.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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