|摘要: ||第二次世界大戰之後，日本接受戰敗事實，由盟軍進行佔領日本，先後完成簽訂舊金山和平條約、修訂日本國憲法及日美安全保障條約，並於盟軍退出後，日本恢復主權，構築維護日本主要安全之保障體制，使日本在無後顧之憂之有利條件下，維持六十五年之和平，讓日本得以全力發展經濟，成為經濟大國。 |
Japan accepted its defeat and the Allied occupation after World War II, and it signed the Treaty of San Francisco, amended its Constitution, and also signed the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, respectively. These covenants constituted the primary security system for upholding Japan’s safety after the Allied withdrawal and the restoration of Japanese sovereignty. With no security threat to worry about, Japan used this advantage cunningly and was able to maintain peace for 65 years, during which time it focused on developing its economy, and ultimately became a major economic power.
Nevertheless, with the progression of the international situation, Japan faced numerous obstacles as it fought actively against being a major economic power yet a weak political entity. Under the U.S.-Japan security system, the content in Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution and the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan resulted in conflict between law and politics, and it further raised questions as to the constitutionality, legitimacy of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, and supremacy of the Constitution vs. the Treaty. Subsequently, although the Japan Self-Defense Forces participated in the United Nations’ peacekeeping operations in both scale and form, they still had difficulty gaining approval by either the international community or the majority of the Japanese citizens. Specifically, even though most Japanese citizens support the Japan Self-Defense Forces’ involvement with international disaster relief and humanitarian relief operations, they tend to support the status quo in regards to the more aggressive peacekeeping operations in avoidance of serious issues such as amending the Constitution and engaging in wars. Therefore, while some are actively seeking an amendment to the Constitution as a solution, due to the lack of a majority consensus, such goal is unlikely to be realized in the near future.
There are five chapters in the thesis. Chapter 1, the introduction, gives an overview of the research motivation, objectives, scope of research, and methodology. Chapter 2 talks briefly about the formation and structure of the Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan system, and it also elaborates on the contents of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan and the Administrative Agreement under Article III of the Security Treaty between Japan and the United States of America (February 28, 1952). Chapter 3 analyzes the nature and development of Japan’s national security policy based on known historical materials. Chapter 4 centers on the transformation and effect of Japan’s national security policy. With reference to the formation of the U.S.-Japan Security Alliance, it explains the new trend in the U.S.-Japan Alliance during the post-Cold War era. Chapter 5 discusses the significance of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan based on the U.S.-Japan Security Alliance. It also contemplates issues regarding amendment to the Constitution of Japan, the potential of granting the Japan Self-Defense Forces as much authority as does the Marine Corps in order to “guard” the outlying islands, and raising warning and surveillance efforts via the introduction of unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. Then through the results of the aforesaid discussion, we deduce whether Japan can end the long-standing conflict between its law and politics and enter the operating mode of a normal country.
In conclusion, the thesis studies the formation and transformation of Japan’s national security policy post-World War II, and may it be of reference to future scholars.