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    Title: 地域自立と住民参加 : 日本における地域活性化事例を中心に
    Other Titles: 地區自主與當地居民參與 : 以日本地區活性化事例為中心
    Self-reliance, people-centered community : based on the local revitalization demonstration (experiences) in Japan
    Authors: 游怡琳;Yu, Yi-Lin
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士在職專班
    石田光義
    Keywords: 後現代;地區活性化;社群企業;循環型社會;第四次經濟;過疏化;住民參加;Post-modern;local revitalization;Social business;community;Circular society;Fourth economy;Rural flight;ポストモダン;ソーシャルビジネス;第四次経済;住民参加;過疎化;循環型社会
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:11:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1970年是所謂「現代」終結,「後現代」到來的年代。可是,生活在這個世界裡的大多數人們,對於「後現代」這個名詞卻感到茫然。所謂「後現代」究竟是什麼?對於我們的日常生活又帶來如何的影響呢?本論文希望能從我們習以為常的觀念著手,重新了解「現代」與「後現代」的不同,將既有觀念更新過後,再一次了解社會發生了什麼事,便較能理解現下的少子高齡化、過疏化等問題,透過社群企業(social business)的建立以及活化地方區域便能獲得改善。
    盧梭的「社會契約論」指出,人類為了排除可能危害自我生存的因素,便組織起共同體,將原屬於個人的權利轉讓給領導共同體的代表,而後形成國家。以如此「人民自治權」概念形成的民主主義國家,隨著資本主義的發展,雖然商業發達,但也因工業化的關係造成階級社會、貧富不均的結果。爾後,以馬克思主義為基礎的社會主義國家形成,其與資本主義的社會福利國家政府皆因主導社會發展而形成大政府。眼見依賴政府的人民不斷增加,1979年英國首相柴契爾夫人便提出小政府政策,意欲國民能夠自立,減少依賴國家福利政策。
    在小政府的政策裡,讓區域得以自主的地方自治也是改革之一。本論文提出日本的地方自治改革、都市人口密集集中、以及少子高齡化等問題導致地區間的發展失衡、過疏化等現象產生;以及在日本都市化發展中,由於政令都市、中核都市、特例市的設定,使得前述指定都市只聽命於政府,脫離地方管轄的情況。面對如此相互矛盾的政策,唯有透過地區自主與當地居民的參與,藉由社群企業的發展來活化地方,如此以「人民自治權」為基礎的地區活化再生事業,相信在逐漸壯大之後,國家也能隨之活化起來。
    The “Post-modern” era was started since 1970, while the “Modern” era was ended in the mean time. It’s quite common to share the idea of we living in a “Modern life”, but the truth is, not many people are familiar with the term “Post-modern” except for it using in Art. What is “Post-modern”? What does it do to our normal life? Before answering that, we would like to review the development of Modernism to Post-modernism, and after we got the idea of what “Post-modern” is, we want to use this concept on discussing the social condition we have at present time. That is, under the condition of low birth rate and population ageing, local areas are facing crises of bad finance and/ or village vanishing problem in Japan.
    In Jean-Jacques Rousseau''s the “Social Contract”, he determined that human beings chose to forfeit same amount of rights and impose same amount of duties as all others do to avoid life threatening risks and form a community. As this is the origin of how a Nation forms, and base on the idea of “The sovereign of a Nation is by the people”, a democracy country is established. Capitalism helped to develop economy fast, but also lead to class conflict and uneven distribution of wealth due to Industrialization. Later, Karl Max’s socialism had created a huge government and so is Welfare countries. Understanding that people are being dependent on the government, In 1979, Margaret Thatcher emphasized on deregulation to create a small government and hope the people can be more independent.
    Self-governance is also included in the deregulation policy. We would like to point out the contradictions between that the local governments in Japan are managing administration under self-governance policy, and are suffering from bad finance, low birth rate, population ageing, that lead to unbalanced development and rural flight condition; while urbanization has brought cities being assigned as government ordinance city, core city, and special city, which are directly under the central government, with no necessity of following self-governance policy. Before the government can find out a better solution on the unbalanced developing situation, instead of relying on policies, local communities are able to revitalize local areas by developing social business. And by doing this, we look forward to see a better country based on local revitalized areas lead “by the people”.
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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