|Abstract: ||1970年是所謂「現代」終結，「後現代」到來的年代。可是，生活在這個世界裡的大多數人們，對於「後現代」這個名詞卻感到茫然。所謂「後現代」究竟是什麼？對於我們的日常生活又帶來如何的影響呢？本論文希望能從我們習以為常的觀念著手，重新了解「現代」與「後現代」的不同，將既有觀念更新過後，再一次了解社會發生了什麼事，便較能理解現下的少子高齡化、過疏化等問題，透過社群企業(social business)的建立以及活化地方區域便能獲得改善。|
The “Post-modern” era was started since 1970, while the “Modern” era was ended in the mean time. It’s quite common to share the idea of we living in a “Modern life”, but the truth is, not many people are familiar with the term “Post-modern” except for it using in Art. What is “Post-modern”? What does it do to our normal life? Before answering that, we would like to review the development of Modernism to Post-modernism, and after we got the idea of what “Post-modern” is, we want to use this concept on discussing the social condition we have at present time. That is, under the condition of low birth rate and population ageing, local areas are facing crises of bad finance and/ or village vanishing problem in Japan.
In Jean-Jacques Rousseau''s the “Social Contract”, he determined that human beings chose to forfeit same amount of rights and impose same amount of duties as all others do to avoid life threatening risks and form a community. As this is the origin of how a Nation forms, and base on the idea of “The sovereign of a Nation is by the people”, a democracy country is established. Capitalism helped to develop economy fast, but also lead to class conflict and uneven distribution of wealth due to Industrialization. Later, Karl Max’s socialism had created a huge government and so is Welfare countries. Understanding that people are being dependent on the government, In 1979, Margaret Thatcher emphasized on deregulation to create a small government and hope the people can be more independent.
Self-governance is also included in the deregulation policy. We would like to point out the contradictions between that the local governments in Japan are managing administration under self-governance policy, and are suffering from bad finance, low birth rate, population ageing, that lead to unbalanced development and rural flight condition; while urbanization has brought cities being assigned as government ordinance city, core city, and special city, which are directly under the central government, with no necessity of following self-governance policy. Before the government can find out a better solution on the unbalanced developing situation, instead of relying on policies, local communities are able to revitalize local areas by developing social business. And by doing this, we look forward to see a better country based on local revitalized areas lead “by the people”.