|摘要: || 以海耶克（1899-1992）為首的奧地利經濟學派（Austrian School of economics）逃離希特勒掌控下的奧地利，於1940年代來到美國撒下計劃性經濟必導致災難的種子。這樣的警訊喚醒了美國自由意志主義（libertarian）知識份子並獲得許多保守主義者的共鳴。巴克利（William F. Buckley, Jr., 1925-2008）是美國近代保守主義運動中重要的領袖人物之一，他自耶魯大學畢業後出版個人著作「耶魯的神與人」（God and Man at Yale），強力抨擊母校放任無神論及社會主義風氣在校園的蔓延違背了耶魯大學的傳統。|
1965年，為迎戰共和黨內自由派年輕新秀林賽（John Lindsay），巴克利代表保守派領袖投入紐約市長選戰，雖未果，但已引起廣泛注意。隔年，巴克利開設電視公共性論壇節目《火線交鋒》（Firing Line），邀請諸多自由派人士及知名的政界知識份子參與辯論，節目中他展現出時而慵懶優雅，時而不留情面地批判對手的鮮明風格。此節目探討許多公共議題，並於1969年獲頒象徵美國電視界最高殊榮的艾美獎（Emmy Awards）。巴克利的出現及其努力大大改變了許多美國民眾對於保守主義既有的刻板概念。
Having avoided Hitler’s Anschluss in Austria in 1938, Friedrich Hayek became the one of the leading proponents of the Austrian School of Economics, settling first in England during the 1930s and 1940s and later in the U.S. in the 1950s. Hayek warned that planned economies would lead the way to political and economic servitude, and his call awakened and resonated among many libertarian and conservative intellectuals in the United States, among them William F. Buckley, Jr. — perhaps the most important of these young American conservatives. Buckley’s fame rose with the publication of his first book God and Man at Yale (1951), a scathing condemnation of his alma mater, Yale, for its open embrace of atheism and collectivism, so inimical to the school’s tradition of religious piety and fierce individualism.
In 1955, Buckley institutionalized his three most important philosophical principles, namely traditionalism, libertarianism, and anti-communism, through the founding of the National Review, a magazine having the declared aims of promoting libertarian views and fighting the growth of big government. National Review was a political act signifying the formal arrival of a conservative movement whose purpose was to push back against an entrenched and growing American leftist movement dating from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal era.
In 1965, Buckley placed himself in the New York City mayoral campaign, but failed to be elected; nevertheless, he drew wild public attention to himself and his political views. Within one year, Buckley debuted on TV with his first program Firing Line, a public affairs show that lasted over thirty years, aimed at debating current affairs with leading liberal opponents and other prominent political intellectuals. Buckley, acting as host with a small studio audience and often an additional questioner having a different political view to his own, typically began the show with an elegant introduction of the guest and then proceeded to intellectually probe the strengths and weaknesses of their opinions. His skillful design and production of the show led to an Emmy Award in 1969.
Over the years William F. Buckley, Jr. greatly changed the American stereotype of conservatives. Buckley was generally characterized as witty and often sarcastic. He was born into a Catholic family, and was largely influenced by Albert Jay Nock, a noted libertarian. This thesis seeks to examine the origin and development of Buckley’s ideas on small government by reviewing the rise of American libertarians and exploring (i) how he found common ground between religion and individual freedom and (ii) how his personal charisma functioned during his career. Finally, to better evaluate Buckley’s success, the thesis considers the value of free markets followed by economic freedom that Buckley was primarily concerned about in his political thinking.