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    題名: 保守主義大師巴克利捍衛小政府理念之研究
    其他題名: William F. Buckley, Jr.'s ideas in defense of limited government
    作者: 李彥明;Lee, Yang-Ming
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    李本京
    關鍵詞: 巴克利;保守主義;自由意志主義;奧地利經濟學派;當代自由主義;小政府;有限政府;國家評論;火線;諾克;肯達爾;柏恩漢;錢伯斯;海耶克;史密思;William F. Buckley, Jr.;conservatism;Libertarianism;Austrian School of Economics;modern liberalism;small government;limited government;National Review;Firing Line;Albert Jay Nock;Willmoore Kendall;James Burnham;Whittaker Chambers;Friedrich Hayek;Adam Smith
    日期: 2013
    上傳時間: 2014-01-23 13:09:48 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   以海耶克(1899-1992)為首的奧地利經濟學派(Austrian School of economics)逃離希特勒掌控下的奧地利,於1940年代來到美國撒下計劃性經濟必導致災難的種子。這樣的警訊喚醒了美國自由意志主義(libertarian)知識份子並獲得許多保守主義者的共鳴。巴克利(William F. Buckley, Jr., 1925-2008)是美國近代保守主義運動中重要的領袖人物之一,他自耶魯大學畢業後出版個人著作「耶魯的神與人」(God and Man at Yale),強力抨擊母校放任無神論及社會主義風氣在校園的蔓延違背了耶魯大學的傳統。

      1955年,巴克利展現其領導能力,帶領保守主義並且匯集三大派別──傳統主義派(Traditionalism)、自由意志主義派(Libertarianism)及反共主義派(Anti-Communism)的力量創建《國家評論》(National Review)雜誌並宣示將站在自由意志的這一邊,力抗政府的擴張。《國家評論》是一股政治行動,也意謂著保守主義運動正式到來,團結右派以迎戰羅斯福新政之後的當代自由主義。

      1965年,為迎戰共和黨內自由派年輕新秀林賽(John Lindsay),巴克利代表保守派領袖投入紐約市長選戰,雖未果,但已引起廣泛注意。隔年,巴克利開設電視公共性論壇節目《火線交鋒》(Firing Line),邀請諸多自由派人士及知名的政界知識份子參與辯論,節目中他展現出時而慵懶優雅,時而不留情面地批判對手的鮮明風格。此節目探討許多公共議題,並於1969年獲頒象徵美國電視界最高殊榮的艾美獎(Emmy Awards)。巴克利的出現及其努力大大改變了許多美國民眾對於保守主義既有的刻板概念。

      巴克利機智及諷刺好辯的人格特質與其家庭教育及求學背景有密切的關係。他出生於天主教家庭,然而也深受自由意志主義領袖人物諾克(Jay Nock)的啟發,凡此皆對於巴克利在捍衛小政府信念的歷程中產生深遠的影響。本文試圖透過對美國自由意志主義興起的歷史回顧檢視巴克利小政府理念的起源及奮鬥歷程,研究其如何在宗教信仰及自由意志思想中找到共通點,並探討其個人特質所發揮的作用。由於巴克利對經濟自由甚為重視,本文於最後藉由大政府與小政府之間的爭議,思索自由市場的價值。
     Having avoided Hitler’s Anschluss in Austria in 1938, Friedrich Hayek became the one of the leading proponents of the Austrian School of Economics, settling first in England during the 1930s and 1940s and later in the U.S. in the 1950s. Hayek warned that planned economies would lead the way to political and economic servitude, and his call awakened and resonated among many libertarian and conservative intellectuals in the United States, among them William F. Buckley, Jr. — perhaps the most important of these young American conservatives. Buckley’s fame rose with the publication of his first book God and Man at Yale (1951), a scathing condemnation of his alma mater, Yale, for its open embrace of atheism and collectivism, so inimical to the school’s tradition of religious piety and fierce individualism.

     In 1955, Buckley institutionalized his three most important philosophical principles, namely traditionalism, libertarianism, and anti-communism, through the founding of the National Review, a magazine having the declared aims of promoting libertarian views and fighting the growth of big government. National Review was a political act signifying the formal arrival of a conservative movement whose purpose was to push back against an entrenched and growing American leftist movement dating from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal era.

     In 1965, Buckley placed himself in the New York City mayoral campaign, but failed to be elected; nevertheless, he drew wild public attention to himself and his political views. Within one year, Buckley debuted on TV with his first program Firing Line, a public affairs show that lasted over thirty years, aimed at debating current affairs with leading liberal opponents and other prominent political intellectuals. Buckley, acting as host with a small studio audience and often an additional questioner having a different political view to his own, typically began the show with an elegant introduction of the guest and then proceeded to intellectually probe the strengths and weaknesses of their opinions. His skillful design and production of the show led to an Emmy Award in 1969.

     Over the years William F. Buckley, Jr. greatly changed the American stereotype of conservatives. Buckley was generally characterized as witty and often sarcastic. He was born into a Catholic family, and was largely influenced by Albert Jay Nock, a noted libertarian. This thesis seeks to examine the origin and development of Buckley’s ideas on small government by reviewing the rise of American libertarians and exploring (i) how he found common ground between religion and individual freedom and (ii) how his personal charisma functioned during his career. Finally, to better evaluate Buckley’s success, the thesis considers the value of free markets followed by economic freedom that Buckley was primarily concerned about in his political thinking.
    顯示於類別:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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