二○一○年十月，由於谷歌地球（Google Earth）錯將位於加勒比海的聖胡安河河口處的哥斯大黎的領土－卡萊羅島（Isla Calero）劃入尼加拉瓜，造成兩國關係緊張，戰火一觸即發，同時也使得糾纏兩百多年的歷史紛爭再度搬上國際舞台。本論文運用國際爭端和平解決的相關概念作為主軸，先釐清兩百多年來聖胡安河爭端的歷史背景，詳細敘述歷次條約、協議以及仲裁的背景與內容，並且探討爭端兩造及相關國際成員如何以和平的手段來解決此一國際爭端。
Nowadays, in the 21th century, with the developments of technologies, communications and transportation, the world has become a global village. However, because of the closer relationships between the members in the global village, relatively the disputes and conflicts are increasing at the same time; therefore, the peaceful settlement of international disputes also has obtained higher attention of the international society.
This research began with the definitions and classifications of international disputes, followed by the historical development of the obligation of the peaceful settlement of international disputes and the last part analyzed the different kinds of peaceful settlement, which are, negotiation, consultation, good offices, mediation, inquiry, conciliation, arbitration and judicial settlement.
In the October of 2010, due to an error of Google Earth, Calero Island, the island which belongs to Costa Rica, became Nicaragua''s territory. Moreover, the relationship between these two countries got worse and tenser than ever. In addition, the case of Google Earth again brought out the historical dispute that has lasted more than two hundred years to the world stage.
This thesis applied the related concepts of peaceful settlement of international disputes as the main shaft to clarify the historical background, then explained in detail the content of every convention, agreement, and arbitration and used the concept of peaceful settlement to analyze and investigate them.