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    Title: El estudio sobre la pobreza en Brasil (1995-2010)
    Other Titles: 巴西扶貧議題之研究 (1995-2010)
    Brazil's poverty study (1995-2010)
    Authors: 陳姿均;Chen, Tzu-Chun
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成;Juan, Hung-hui
    Keywords: 巴西;貧窮;家庭補助計畫;魯拉;卡多索;新自由主義;新結構主義;經濟成長;社會支出;貧富差距;千禧年發展目標;Brazil;Poverty;Bolsa Familia;Lula;Cardoso;Neoliberalism;neostructuralism;economic growth;Social Expenditures;inequality;MDGs (The Millennium Development Goals);Brasil;Pobreza;Neoliberalismo;Neoestructuralismo;Crecimiento Economico;Gasto Publico Social;Desigualdad;ODM (Objetivos de Desarrrollo del Milenio)
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2014-01-23 13:09:32 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 巴西從西班牙手中獨立至今,「貧窮」一直都是個重要且嚴肅的議題。

    貧窮是多面向的,所影響的層面小至個人生活,大至整個社會,並與其他議題相互呼應,如:健康、教育…等。因此,各國領袖們於2000年聯合國千禧年高峰會上簽訂千禧年宣言,嗣為具體落實消除人類貧窮、飢餓、疾病、文盲、環境惡化及婦女歧視等目標,故陸續發展出一套具體且有時程的發展計畫及評量指標,以期於2015年達成千禧年發展目標(Millennium Development Goals; MDGs),其中最主要的目標之一為減少一半的赤貧及飢餓人口。

    在整個拉丁美洲國家中,巴西是利益分配不公正、貧富差距大及貧窮人口眾多的一員;但同時,也是經濟成長快速及消滅貧窮最有成效的一國。2009年,在巴西有6.1%的人口居住於極度貧窮及10.8%的人口居住於貧窮,而這些數據與1990年相比,下降了將近三分之二。另一方面,巴西已是全球第六大經濟體,其2010年的GDP年成長率為7.5%,比美國(2.4%)、墨西哥(5.3%)、智利(5.8%)等國還高出許多。由於他在經濟成長於消滅貧窮等議題頗有成就,因此本論文想探討他們是如何使貧窮人口下降。

    本論文一開始先探討何為貧窮以及消滅貧窮的三大要素:經濟成長、貧富差距以及社會支出。第二,將探討造成巴西貧窮嚴重的歷史、經濟及社會因素。接著將探討卡多索政府及魯拉政府所秉持的理論及提出消滅貧窮和使經濟成長的政策。最後將以拉美和加勒比經濟委員會(ECLAC)針對拉美國家從千禧年發展目標中選出來的13項指標以及各國際組織針對貧窮議題所訂定的指標檢視巴西消滅貧窮的結果。
    Poverty in Brazil has always been a serious and important issue since their independence.

    Poverty is a multidimensional concept, and can be affected by several interrelated issues. And for this reason, the UN member signed the Millennium Declaration in 2000 at the Millennium Summit to establish the future of humanity together, hoping that through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will help people to get out of poverty and improve their living conditions.

    Among the Latin countries, Brazil has been one of the most unequal countries with lots of people living in poverty and extreme poverty, but also has been a country with good results in the issue of poverty reduction and economic growth. In 2009, the percentage of the population who living in extreme poverty was 6.1% and 10.8% in poverty. These percentages have reduced nearly two-thirds of those consequences of the 1990. Moreover, Brazil is now the sixth largest economy in the world and annual GDP growth reached 7.5% in 2010 when the United States only grew 2.4%, Mexico 5.3% and Chile 5.8%. Therefore, we would like to investigate what they have done to get the achievements in the area of poverty reduction.

    At the beginning of this thesis, we will talk about the poverty and three factors which related with poverty reduction, those factors are economic growth, level of inequality and social spending. Second, through the history, economic and social causes, so we can understand how it produced serious inequality and the situation of poverty in Brazil. Later, we will talk about the ideologies and policies of President Cardoso and President Lula in fighting poverty. At the end, we will use the 13 indicators of the MDGs of the UN which have been selected by ECLAC and the indicators of international organizations for verifying and analyzing the achievement.
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