This paper presents a heterodyne common-path grating interferometer with Littrow configuration (HCGIL). The HCGIL can effectively overcome environmental disturbance effect and the DC offset and the amplitude variation of the measurement signals. Experimental results match well with the HP5529A results for long-range measurements. Results also show that the estimated measurement resolution is 0.15 ± 0.027 nm. The stability of the HCGIL is −0.41 ± 0.23 nm. Therefore, the HCGIL has potential for subnanometer resolution and long-range applications.