本研究的目的在於說明OECD的PISA測驗目的、以及其對於「素養」所下的定義，同時藉由分析日本因應「PISA危機」所實施的教育改革，考察做為日本教育理念的「生存力」與「PISA型學力」所主張的概念是否一樣。本研究結果指出：兩者內涵不甚相同。應該將「學校教育是為了應付考試」的舊有觀念轉換，並且加以普及。不僅要關心PISA測驗的排名，更應該重新檢討PISA測驗的目的以及應用對象是誰的根本問題，推行統合「學校知識」與「市民素養」的教改才是當務之急。 The aim of this paper is to clarify the following points. (1) The purpose of programme for International Student Assessment, and the concept of literacy. (2) The relationship between “Zest for living” and “PISA-typed Achievement”.The main result of the paper is as follows: The contents of “Zest for living” is not the same as “PISA-typed Achievement”. The consciousness from the school education for taking an examination needs to be reformed. We should re-examine the purpose and application of PISA test, not only care about the ranking of PISA test. And the educational reform which the balance of “Knowledge Transmitted at School” and “civil literacy” are needed.