農技援外有很長一段時間是中華民國政府外交的主軸，而其中最出名的莫過於針對1960年代非洲地區的「先鋒案」。有關這個援外工作的研究，美國的角色經常被忽略，即使提及，也多以美國協助盟邦國際地位的角度予以分析。本文從臺灣的廉價勞力出發，配合非洲在冷戰中的地位，以及華府推動兩個中國的時空背景，重新分析美國在這個計劃中的角色。作者認為先鋒案不僅在非洲提升中華民國政府的聲望，也能俺護華府調整其與北京的關係。 For a long time, utilizing agricultural know-how as a means of foreign aid had been the major diplomatic mission of the Republic of China (hereafter ROC). The 1960s Vanguard Project-designating Africa as its principal beneficiary-might be the best known of such diplomacy. Previous research on this project usually attributes ROC's rising international status to the success of the Vanguard Project but neglects the involvement of the United States. A few studies do give credit to Uncle Sam in this matter, but depict Washington as only playing a secondary supportive role. Taking into consideration Taiwan's cheap labor, Africa's status during the Cold War era, and Washington's projected "Two-Chinas" diplomatic scheme, this article analyzes and reassesses the functioning and the role of the United States in this venture. The author concludes that in addition to bolstering the reputation of the ROC in Africa, the Vanguard Project also served as a distracter at the time when Washington was covertly courting Beijing.