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    Title: 觀光凝視下族群符號的意象-以台灣中和華新街為例
    Other Titles: Study of Ethnic Image Construction in Huaxin Street of Zhonghe, Taiwan: From a ‘Tourist Gaze’ Perspective
    Authors: 林欽明;蔡孟軒
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所
    Keywords: Myanmar Street;Tourist Gaze;authenticity;symbol consumption;緬甸街;觀光凝視;原真性;符號消費
    Date: 2013-08-17
    Issue Date: 2013-10-11 11:31:55 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: The paper will explore ethnic image of Huaxin Street, a region in Zhonghe, Taiwan occupied by immigrant Chinese Burmese from the perspective of John Urry’s tourist gaze. We will focus on interactions of three social roles: Taiwan government, Burmese business people of Huaxin Street and local tourists. Oppressed by nationalization policy of the Burmese military government in the 1960s, many Chinese Burmese chose to leave Myanmar and went to Taiwan and other places. A majority of those in Taiwan, who would adhere to Chinese orthodoxy, settled in Huaxin Street of Zhonghe, with the number of about 30 thousand. The issues concerned in this paper are: First of all, how the ethnic economy and the ethnic tourism therewith were formed in Huaxin Street? What are their identities in Taiwan’s society? Secondly, were the Chinese Burmese discouraged by a series of activities sponsored by local government, such as the Songkran festival and “enery town has its own uniqueness” policy, in transforming the region into a "Nanyang Tourism Cuisine Street" as an enclave of Thai-Burmese flavor, which, they were afraid, could have lost authenticity in terms of Chinese culture? And lastly, in this context, how the local tourists, most of whom are Chinese as well, will imagine the Burmese community there from their gaze? The study will do some survey on tourists of the E-generation. The expected result is that the young cohort would be more interested in the exotic symbols of Southeast Asian “Chinese heritage" and cuisine culture through their sightseeing experiences. They may also recognize that even though the Chinese Burmese seemed having well integrated into Taiwan’s society, they could still be excluded from the mainstream. Overall, interactions of the three social roles in this paper have shaped the ethnic image of Huaxin Street, which could be embedded with political, social and economic values in the process of tourist gaze.
    本文以Urry「觀光凝視」的概念為基礎,並以緬甸華僑所建構出的「緬甸街」(華新街)做一初探性研究,探討該區族群符號的意象。筆者以三個社會角色-台灣政府、華新街緬甸商家以及觀光客三者之間的互動關係來建構。首先,闡述緬華社群來台落腳的背景,1960年代受到緬甸軍政府實施國有化政策壓迫之下,許多原居在仰光的緬華基於中華正統思想,移居「祖國」台灣各地,大部分落腳在中和華新街;1970年代之後再陸續以依親和升學的方式將親人接來,如此漸進式的移民,使華新街漸漸形成「緬甸街」,目前約有3~5萬緬僑居住於此。儘管遷居於此的緬僑人口為數不少,但由於緬甸街早期被台灣主流社會汙名化,因此一直處於較為弱勢、邊緣的地位。欲跳脫此一傳統意識框架的唯一途徑,勢必得透過文化實踐才得以轉變。其中非常有效的扭轉意象方式之一,便是辦理節慶活動,「潑水節」就是在此脈絡下產生。爾後台灣政府接手舉辦潑水節等活動,甚至在「一鄉鎮一特色」的政策之下,形塑出「南洋觀光美食街」的地景,使得華新街蛻變成一個帶有異國情調的觀光景點。最後,筆者以觀光客的身分進入緬甸街進行體驗與觀察,親身參與2013潑水節活動,利用相機蒐集各種不同的差異性符號,品嘗各種不同的美食,對照既有文獻做一分析。綜合現有文獻與親身觀察的結果發現,緬華族群在發展的過程中,儼然已變成一經過商品化的族群,而發展過程中部分悖離緬華文化的觀光政策,卻也遺憾地使得當地居民的原真性逐漸喪失。觀光客可說是置身於一重新建構後的環境中進行觀光,進行符號消費。但就觀光客的立場而言,原真性是根據其各自的經驗真實化,自行定義出來的,是否能全然體驗原汁原味的緬華文化並非其關注的焦點,能否體驗「偏離常軌」的社會經驗才是其關心的重點所在。因此,筆者指出緬店街之所以被建構出來,往往仰賴他者與他者凝視的存在,即「看與被看」之間的權力關係,其象徵性意義才能夠被理解。
    Relation: 世界海外華人研究學會第八屆國際會議=International Conference of ISSCO 8th,20頁
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 會議論文

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