In the past, university is a close system and rarely pays much attention to the environmental challenges. However, over-concentrated universities, decreased birth rate and limited funds of government have imposed great pressures on these traditional higher education institutes (HEIs) and force them to undertake many engineering programs so as to survive. From strategic management (SM) perspective, the fundamental problem is how firms to achieve and sustain their competitive advantage. Most studies so far get used to over-simplification of the relationship among environment, strategy and performance for lack of complete research framework. This study examines a metamorphosis of university in life-long learning society by incorporating organisational development (OD) to continuing education institute (CEI). Therefore, this paper proposes a three-stage development trajectory and a strategic map to outline the core value of SM. Finally, we conclude with some issues in the need of future research.
International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning 21(2/3), pp.253-272