This study aims to determine the student engagement differences between resilient students and the other students. We applied student engagement theory to explain which factors that might influence the resilient students in our conceptual model. Numerous studies have found some significant characteristic of resilient students. However, previous studies have failed to answer the reasons underlying the success of resilient students. To answer the question, this study employs student engagement theory to explore the factors that will lead the resilient students to succeed. The target groups are comprised of 91 resilient students, 131 non-resilient students, and 1,101 the other students in senior high schools in Taiwan. This study applied ANOVA to compare the student engagement between resilient, non-resilient, and the other students. The multiple regression models were used to analyze how the four dimensions of student engagement will influence the learning performance of different student groups. The results reveal there is a significant difference of student engagement in the four dimensions among the three student groups. The result of multiple regression analysis also shows that cognitive engagement is the most important factor for the target groups. As for the resilient students in this study, the most important factor is emotional engagement. This study suggests that stimulating their learning motivation is important in addition to provide additional education resources to economically disadvantaged students. The results of this study also contribute to enrich the content of engagement theory as well as enrich its context. The results of this study may enhance classroom teachers’ understanding of resilient students as well as teaching strategies. It also provides policy recommendation for policy makers.