A design and implementation method of a robot soccer system with three vision-based autonomous robots is proposed in this paper. A hierarchical architecture with four independent layers: (a) information layer, (b) strategy layer, (c) tactic layer, and (d) execution layer, is proposed to construct a flexible and robust vision-based autonomous robot soccer system efficiently. Five mechanisms, including (a) two-dimensional neck mechanism, (b) dribble mechanism, (c) shoot mechanism, (d) aim mechanism, and (e) flexible move mechanism, are proposed to let the robot with multiple functions to win the game. A method based on the obtained data from a compass and a vision sensor is proposed to determine the location of the robot on the field. In the strategy design, a hierarchical architecture of decision based on the finite-state transition mechanism for the field players and the goalkeeper is proposed to solve varied situations in the robot soccer game. Three vision-based robots are implemented and some real competition results in FIRA Cup are presented to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method in the autonomous robot soccer system design.
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 10, pp.1-13