This work monitored advection flow through a floc by bubble tracking. Close examination of the motion of a swarm of hydrogen bubbles that passed over a free-falling floc allowed the extent of advection flow to be estimated at 53% for the original activated sludge floc, and 12% for the flocculated floc. The interior permeability of the sludge flocs was estimated from this information. The fluid force exerted on the falling floc was also considered.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 250(2), pp.400-408