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    Title: 高油高鹽廚餘堆肥對作物生長之影響
    Other Titles: Effects of high oil and sodium content in household compost on vegetable growth
    Authors: 陳詠裕;Chen, Yong-Yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
    李柏青
    Keywords: 廚餘;堆肥;小白菜;Na+/K+比;油脂;Household waste;Compost;Brassica chinesis;Na+/K+ ratio;lipid
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 12:04:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 因各地方風土民情與飲食習慣不同,回收之廚餘特性也不盡相同。在中國料理中,使用大量的食用油與鹽類,導致廚餘中含有高量的油脂(約15%)與鹽類(約1%)。因此本研究藉由4種不同特性的實場堆肥以了解高油高鹽廚餘堆肥化施用於種植作物之影響,藉此探討高油高鹽堆肥的特性與應用。
    本試驗以傳統廚餘堆肥(General, G),食品肉類堆肥(Meat, M),傳統廚餘堆肥與已堆肥7個月肉類堆肥做1:1(v:v)混合(General+Meat, GM),肉類堆肥於堆肥初期添加水分(Water, W),共4種特性堆肥共堆肥化261天。以市場常見之小白菜作為盆栽試驗,共栽種三期,分別為第1期栽種時間為2012/6/5至2012/6/27,第2期為2012/7/18至2012/8/9,第3期為2012/9/4至2012/10/4號。
    研究結果顯示,4種不同特性堆肥粗脂肪在堆肥化初期(7天內)即大幅降解,平均降解率約為70%,而Na+濃度隨著堆肥化逐漸累積。最終堆肥以TOC、DOC、Phenol、NO3-與NH4+之參數判斷堆肥之成熟狀態,其結果發現,最終之參數雖維持穩定,但由於堆肥經長時間未翻堆,因此判斷為未成熟堆肥。盆栽試驗三期小白菜第1期小白菜存活率不佳外(小於40%),另外2期小白菜存活率約為100%。盆栽土壤的Na+、K+濃度與TOC隨著堆肥期數增加,但栽種之小白菜植體內的Na+與K+濃度並無隨之增加,而TOC可以幫助小白菜抵抗Na+之迫害,並可以持續供給小白菜養分,及調節土壤中pH與EC的變化。本試驗中小白菜Na+/K+比約為0.48(mg/plant),比較市售小白菜與本試驗之小白菜Na+/K+比為0.50(mg/plant),試驗中之小白菜植體中之Na+/K+比與市售小白菜相似。因此試驗中之堆肥,經由混合配比,所栽種之小白菜與市售小白菜之生長與Na+/K+比相似。此試驗中,Na+累積不能作為危害小白菜之依據,適當Na+與K+累積會使小白菜生長良好,因此廚餘堆肥使用上可以經由適當之混合配比(Soil:Compost=7:3, 1:1)及一段時間與農地之間的平衡,方可栽種使用。
    As the local culture and daily food vary among areas, the features of kitchen waste for different areas also vary. Cooking oil and salt are used in significant quantity in Chinese cuisine, resulting in the high oil (around 15%) and salt (around 1%) in kitchen waste. Through four types of onsite composting, this study tried to understand the effects on crops from composting kitchen waste with a high level of oil and salt and discussed about the features and application of the compost.
    The four types of compost observed in this study were traditional kitchen waste compost (General, G), meat compost (Meat, M), the 1:1 (v:v) mix of traditional kitchen waste compost and 7-month-old meat compost (General+Meat, GM), and meat compost with the addition of water at early stage (Water, W). The four types of compost were composted for a total of 261 days. The experiment was conducted on potted plants of Brassica chinensis, a common vegetable at markets, during three periods of time in 2012. The first period was from June 5thto 27th, the second period was from July 18th to August 9thand the third one was from September 4th to October 4th.
    The results showed the lipid in the four types of compost decomposed significantly within the first seven days, the early composting stage, with an average decomposition rate of 70% while the levels of sodium ion in the compost gradually increased. Final compost maturity was determined by the levels of TOC, DOC, Phenol, NO3-and NH4+. Although the final levels in our study were stable, the compost was still determined immature because it hadn’t been turned for a long time. The survival rate was poor in the experiment on potted plants of Brassica chinensis L. in the first period (less than 40%) and the rates for the other two periods were 100%. The later the period was, the higher levels of Na+,K+ and TOC were observed in the soil while the levels of Na+ and K+ in Brassica chinensis didn’t increase in this way. TOC protected Brassica chinensis L. from Na+, continued to support it with nutrition, and regulated pH level and EC change in the soil.
    The ratio of Na+/K+ in Brassica chinensis in our study was around 0.48, similar to that (0.5) in Brassica chinensis sold on the market. Therefore, the growth and Na+/K+ ratio were similar for Brassica chinensis grown with the mixed compost in our study and that sold on the market. The accumulation of Na+ didn’t bring damage to the plant in our study, and proper accumulation of Na+ and K+ could assist the growth of plant. Therefore,
    kitchen waste compost can be used on crop if mixed at the right proportion (Soil: Compost=7:3, 1:1) and after a period of time to reach a balance with the soil.
    Appears in Collections:[水資源及環境工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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