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    Title: 我國高速公路伸縮縫低頻及超低頻噪音之量測與評估
    Other Titles: Measurement and assessment of the low frequency noise and infrasound of highway expansion joint in Taiwan
    Authors: 陳柏帆;Chen, Po-Fan
    Contributors: 淡江大學水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
    盧博堅
    Keywords: 高速公路;伸縮縫;低頻噪音;超低頻噪音;Highway;Expansion Joint;Low Frequency Noise;Infrasound
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 12:03:18 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 隨著國內經濟的發展,交通量日漸擴大,高速公路已成為不可或缺的重要建設之ㄧ。為了避免高速公路高架段在溫度變化時,因為熱漲冷縮破壞道路,於施工時預留的縫隙安裝伸縮縫是目前已知避免熱脹冷所破壞道路的最佳方法。但由於橋梁的不連續性,造成車輛行經伸縮縫時會因衝擊和跳車引發低頻噪音問題,影響行車的舒適度以及沿線居民的生活品質。且近年來國外更發現伸縮縫會產生低頻噪音的危害,低頻噪音會使心跳、呼吸、腎上腺素產生變化,甚至超低頻噪音與人體器官的振動頻率相近,會產生共振之現象。

    因此本研究目標包括分析及調查我國高速公路高架段伸縮縫低頻噪音的特性後,建立我國伸縮縫低頻噪音管制的建議值,並提供相關單位針對高速公路高架段伸縮縫噪音改善做參考。

    伸縮縫雖然有各種已知型式,但根據文獻之調查,台灣高架段伸縮縫是以齒型伸縮縫及模組型伸縮縫這兩種使用量最大,本研究針對這兩種伸縮縫的低頻噪音使用了不加權、A加權、C加權三種加權模式,其中A加權模式之均能音量是本國噪音管制法針對低頻噪音所採用的加權模式,國外對於低頻噪音大多採取不加權模式之1/3八音度頻帶。在量測過程中,我們將行經模組型及寬齒型伸縮縫的車輛分為大型車及小型車,大型車包括大貨車、遊覽車、砂石車,小型車則為小客車。

    兩種不同形式的伸縮縫量測的結果顯示如下:

    (a) 兩種伸縮縫大型車的音量皆大於小型車,這是因為大型的重量大於小型車的重量。
    (b) 兩種伸縮縫在超低頻2.5 Hz - 5.0 Hz之間皆會有音量較高的現象,但與其他國家容許值比較過後,發現並未超出容許值,因此對人體的影響應可忽略不計。
    (c) 過去的文獻顯示,模組型伸縮縫在全頻不加權均能音量下,產生的噪音比寬齒型伸縮縫高約13.0 dB,但根據本研究結果,兩者在低頻噪音約在3.2 dB - 10.5 dB之間,可見寬齒型伸縮縫產生的低頻噪音比預期來的嚴重。
    (d) 比較兩者伸縮縫在大型車低頻噪音的部分,發現都已經超出了國外的標準,即便採用我國低頻噪音管制方式的A加權均能音量,模組型伸縮縫也還是大於管制標準。

    未來若需對伸縮縫低頻噪音進行管制,除了原本的A加權均能音量管制標準外,建議可以效仿國外,採用1/3八音度頻帶,針對不同的頻帶進行管制。
    The growth of Taiwan’s economy affects the behaviors of its residents, and the quality of their life. The increase of traffic volume clearly is one of the by-products created from this growth and inevitably raises the importance of the needs of elevated highways as part of Taiwan’s transportation structure. However, heat expansion and cold contraction can cause major damages of a relatively expensive highway. To mitigate the risk, a highway is fragmented by reserving spaces for expansion joints to prevent unavoidable threatens of the Mother Nature. Nevertheless, the fragmentation of a highway causes a problem, i.e., as a vehicle drives through and bumps against the expansion joints, Low Frequency Noise was created and discounts the quality of life for drivers and the residents who live around the highway. Recent studies further prove that Low Frequency Noise created by vehicles passing through expansion joints could endanger a person’s health. Not only could it change his heart rate, respiratory rate, and the release of epinephrine, but their similar vibration frequency between the noise and human organs could result in a resonance effect.

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and investigate Low Frequency Noise from vehicles passing through expansion joints of Taiwan’s elevated highways to facilitate the Taiwan authorities to regulate an appropriate highway Low Frequency Noise control standard and its improvement if necessary.

    In spite of various kinds of expansion joints, the scope of this research is limited to Low Frequency Noise from vehicles passing through Finger Expansion Joints and Module Expansion Joints, for they are the major joints used in Taiwan’s elevated highways. The noises are measured based on the size of vehicles with different frequency weighting filters – linear, A-weighting scale, and C-weighting scale filters. Among them, A-weighted Equivalent Continuous Noise Level (Leq) is specifically used by Taiwan’s Noise Control Standard while 1/3 – Octave band of linear is commonly used by others. Vehicles are sized into two groups – cars and trucks. And, trucks include semi trucks, buses, and construction vehicles.

    Our study affirms the following findings:

    (a) The sound level generated from trucks bumping against expansion joints is worse than the sound level generated from cars. It is because the weight of trucks is out scaled of the weight of cars.
    (b) Infrasound from vehicles passing through either Module or Finger Expansion Joints is higher between the range of 2.6 Hz and 5.0 Hz. But, it still falls within the tolerance level compared with other countries’ standard and has minor concern of a person’s health.
    (c) Low Frequency Noise from vehicles passing through Module Expansion Joints is 3.2 dB – 10.5 dB higher than Low Frequency Noise from vehicles passing through Finger Expansion Joints. It diminishes the benefit of using Finger Expansion Joints as joints of a highway as other scholars and articles demonstrated, i.e., full-scale Leq of linear from vehicles passing through Module Expansion Joints is 13.0 dB higher than that passing through Finger Expansion Joints.
    (d) Further study of Low Frequency Noise from vehicles pass through both kinds of expansion joints show no risk for cars; however, Low Frequency Noise from trucks exceeds other countries’ standard. If we use A-weighting scale filter to measure, Low Frequency Noise from trucks passing through Module Expansion Joints is still not complied with Taiwan’s Noise Control Standard while Low Frequency Noise from truck passing through Finger Expansion Joints falls within the Standard.

    Upon these findings, it is recommended that if the Taiwan authorities are to establish the maximum level of Low Frequency Noise from vehicles passing through expansion joints, not only should the standard be measured with A-weighted Leq, but similar with other countries measured with 1/3 – Octave bands as well.
    Appears in Collections:[水資源及環境工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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