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    Title: 具製程, 電壓及溫度飄移補償之低供應電壓參考時脈振盪器電路
    Other Titles: A low supply voltage oscillator with detecting process, voltage and temperature drift circuit
    Authors: 鄭景燦;Cheng, Ching-Tsan
    Contributors: 淡江大學電機工程學系碩士班
    楊維斌;Yang, Wei-Bin
    Keywords: 振盪器;製程;溫度;電壓;參考電流源;Compensation;Oscillator;current;PVT
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 12:02:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在系統晶片化的時代,時序電路儼然就是數位電路的中樞,振盪器更在其中扮演一關鍵性的元件。目前3C產品的蓬勃發展中,皆以輕、薄、省電與節省成本為最大訴求,因此在節省面積與降低功耗的同時,系統依然保持著穩定的操作功能便是此研究目的。
    系統晶片會隨著製程、供應電壓定與溫度偏異而產生飄移,電路上會產生非理想的偏異,會造成系統上的不穩定,進而造成晶片的不正常工作,更嚴重而導致晶片的損壞,如何設計出一不隨製程、電壓與溫度變異的振盪器便是研究中一個重要的議題,在電路的設計上使用低供應電壓則大幅降低功率的損耗,因此,此論文目標為設計出一個具製程、電壓及溫度飄移之低供應電壓參考時脈振盪器電路。
    整體電路可分為三大部分,第一部分為設計偏壓參考電流源,其中包含了正溫度係數電流與負溫度係數電流來完成溫度補償。接著利用輸出電流調整電路來補償因為製程所產生的變異。第二部份為四級差動延遲單位所組成的環型振盪器,而第三部分為雙端轉單端頻率輸出架構(CKAMR)。在正常供應電壓1.8V操作環境下,透過量測結果可得知在供應電壓變化由1.62~1.98V下電壓變異係數為0.13%,溫度變化在0~100℃時其溫度變異係數為48.8ppm/℃。
    接著,為了降低其功耗,進而將供應電壓降至0.9V,同時將溫度範圍提升至-25~125℃進行模擬。此外,為了達到輸出頻率的單調性與一致性,改由溫度碼電流電路來進行設計模擬。最後我們所提出之具製程、電壓及溫度飄移之低供應電壓參考時脈振盪器電路其在供應電壓變化在0.81~0.99V時其電壓變異係數為0.76%,溫度變化在-25~125℃時溫度變異係數為53.5 ppm/℃。
    This thesis presents two oscillators with detecting process, voltage and temperature (PVT) drift working in difference supply voltage for 25-MHz clock oscillator. The oscillator circuits are composed of current reference circuit and ring oscillator and CKAMR.
    The current reference circuit is composed of complementary-to-absolute-temperature (CTAT) and a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) to compensated temperature variation. And output current adjustment circuit is used to overcome process variation. The voltage variation is compensated by the connecting structure between current reference and oscillator. The first oscillator is measured in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS technology. The measured temperature variation coefficient is 48.8 ppm/℃ across a temperature range of 0℃ to 100℃, and voltage variation coefficient is 0.13% for a supply voltage range from 1.62V to 1.98V. Power consumption is 64uW.
    Finally, in order to reduce power consumption, we design the oscillator circuit operates in 0.9V. And the output current adjustment circuit is replaced by Thermal Code Current Circuit to avoid glitch when current is changed. In post-simulation, temperature variation coefficient is 53.5 ppm/℃ across a temperature range of -25℃ to 125℃, and voltage variation coefficient is 0.76% for a supply voltage range from 1.62V to 1.98V. Power consumption is 13.4uW.
    Appears in Collections:[電機工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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