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    Title: 媒介生態學視野下的媒介造英雄 : 以「超人」漫畫與電影速度表現為例
    Other Titles: A study on media created heroes by using the perspective of media ecology : a case study on the expression of speed in superman comics and movies
    Authors: 白孟穎;Pai, Meng-Ying
    Contributors: 淡江大學資訊傳播學系碩士班
    楊智明;Yang, Jyh-Ming
    Keywords: 媒介生態學;英雄;超人;漫畫;電影;速度;Media ecology;heroes;speed;Superman;Comics;Movies
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 11:45:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 漫畫與電影,前者為靜態平面圖像媒介,而後者為動態影像且具聲音效果媒介,當「超人(Superman)」 出現在此兩媒介中時,在表現形式上卻是非常的不同。漫畫用了許多電影運鏡手法構圖,顯然兩者的關係是密不可分。1938年自「超人」出現於漫畫至今,人們卻視此虛構人物的存在為理所當然,故本研究將探討媒介如何經營出如名字那般「超」的超人,而這樣的「超」為何讓人接受,並成為流行和文化現象。另外,更將焦點放在漫畫與電影中超人「飛的速度」表現形式的改變,並進一步觀察兩媒介中是否因技術的發展而影響彼此,或者是延伸的關係。

    本研究以馬歇爾‧麥克魯漢(Marshall McLuhan)的「媒介即訊息」為主要的理論架構。麥克魯漢首先提出媒介形式是「人的擴充與延伸」,他認為這種媒介的擴充與延伸會反過來塑造並控制人類行動的規模與形式。而以「超人」漫畫與電影為例,當新技術出現後, 便會影響並且潛移默化的修
    正人們對超人「飛的速度」的感知。另外,麥克魯漢更進一步提出了「媒介內容也是另一媒介」,也就是說漫畫與電影的媒介本質脫離不了舊媒介的形式,而舊媒介形式仍會出現在這兩者的內容中,但新的媒介在展演方式上,會與時俱進,產生新的認知感官經驗。

    本研究以媒介生態學派的觀點作為主要的研究方法。由於媒介生態學派綜合了許多研究方法於一身,但其最終目的仍是希冀了解媒介生態,也就是整個媒介環境結構、內容等對人的思想、情感、行為的影響。本研究又以媒介生態學派中資料的觀察描述與比較研究方法為主,利用收集資料的過程,逐漸釐清研究問題,而其中資料收集又以「時間軸」的方式,依漫畫與電影技術上逐年的發展,觀察「超人」漫畫與電影中,兩者的速度表現形式是否相互影響。另外也試著從「時間軸」的觀察,找出技術發展對人們的影響為何,並從中歸納出不同層級與時期的階段變化。

    綜上所述,本研究發現如同麥克魯漢所云:「媒介是人的延伸」,而電影作為影像時代的代表引發的思維革命,其實是圖像階段的延續,也因為技術的介入,使得圖像的再現更趨向真實。而「超人」漫畫與電影媒介擅用了其技術與媒介特性,達到並突破以往的「速度表現」,將所有感官經驗
    協調並徹底的揉搓一塊後,使之飽和、將之塑形,創造出更多視、聽覺等感官刺激的「超人」。又由於媒介懂得將「超人」緊密的與社會、文化、政治、經濟扣連,不斷加入當代最新的時事,使「超人」能歷久不衰,成為人們心中不折不扣的英雄。而在媒介這個馴化的過程中,漫畫與電影兩媒介的發展是密不可分的,雖然主、客關係難以定奪,但不可否認的是,媒介隨著時代發展,不論媒介帶來什麼樣嶄新的世界觀,人們都一直處於這個被「規訓」的過程,且永不間斷。
    Both comics and films are media, the former is static plane pictorial images, the latter is dynamic images and which has sound effect. And there are differences between the expression of Superman’s action in comics and films. To comics, it uses many films shots to complete the composition; therefore, there is close affinity between comics and films. Since Superman appeared in comics, people nowadays take this fictitious role as normal. This thesis is studying how medium construct the man who has unbelievable skills just like speed in comics and films, and the thesis is going further to observe whether the technics development of these two media is the reason which comics and films influence each other or just the extension relationship.

    In the theory construction, first using Marshall McLuhan’s theory: “Medium is the message”. McLuhan understood medium is “the extensions of man”. He thought media would control the action and the behavior rules of human. To take “Superman” comics and films as examples, when new technics come out, they will influence and change the sense of Superman’s flying speed without awareness. Furthermore, McLuhan said that “content of any medium is always another medium.” It meant that the characteristics of comics and movie would never break off relations with the form of former medium, and the form of former medium will be the content of these two media.

    In this study, Media Ecology will be introduced as the main methodology. Although Media Ecology can be defined through various studies, the ultimate goal remains to be the understanding of an entire media environment structure and its significance, as well as its effects on people''s thoughts, feelings and behavior. Through the process of data collection of different timeline periods, the study of Media Ecology can be better observed and compared. Throughout the years, the interpretation of Superman’s speed has been developed and manifested through different technological evolutions in both Superman comics and movies. By observing this “Timeline” study thoroughly, readers will better understand the influence of technology on today’s society as well as its importance at each point in time.

    "Media is the extensions of man", as quoted by McLuhan, has validated the above statement. Movies, which represent the evolution of image thinking, would be foreseen as the successor of the pictorial era. In addition, due to the evolution of technology, images displayed in movies are moving closer to reality. As Superman comics and movies creators became more and more knowledgeable in the application of technology, their upcoming finished products achieve breakthrough results and portray Superman’s speed much better than before. The idea is to gather the essence of the projection of speed, and thus create a superhero that would stimulate both the sense of sight and hearing of its audience. Moreover, in order to create a long lasting superhero, media tend to have Superman associated to many aspects of everyday news, as well as social, cultural and political issues. During this process of learning, comics and movies often have the tendency to influence one other; it is important to remember that as media progresses throughout the years, regardless of what new perspectives this would bring to society, the world should always be under constant thirst for knowledge and never stop being training.
    Appears in Collections:[資訊傳播學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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