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    Title: 從政治機會結構觀點檢視反苗栗縣後龍科技園區行動
    Other Titles: The anti-Houlong science and technology park action : the perspective of political opportunity structure
    Authors: 葉敏慧;Yeh, Ming-Hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學公共行政學系公共政策碩士班
    范玫芳;陳志瑋
    Keywords: 苗栗縣後龍科技園區;政治機會結構;地方社會運動;短期突發事件;Houlong Science and Technology Park;political opportunity structure;local social movement;short-term event
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 11:34:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 現今我國實施的地方自治,地方政府在規劃、制定、執行特定政策與行政管理、管制之事務具一定程度的自主性。且為了地方財政、振興地方發展,並展現首長政績,常透過建設大型開發案的方式企圖達到政策目標與政治目的。然而,隨之可能帶來的污 染、風險、以及土地利用與生活方式改變,乃至於影響生存居住權利,使在地居民受到嚴重衝擊。由苗栗縣政府所主導的「後龍科技園區開發案」,與當地居民及存在著許多的衝突與問題。本研究以政治機會理論為基礎檢視該個案,並採用文獻分析法與深度訪談作為資料蒐集方法。本研究探討政治機會結構理論核心組成的元素,在反對行動中是否存在?挑戰者是否掌握或創造了某些政治機會而促使政治機會結構的改變,並是否出現了其他短期突發事 件,影響行動結果的發展?

    研究發現由於地方政府封閉了與挑戰者之間的政治管道,挑戰者在受限的情況下轉向中央政府找尋機會,且因制度的因素, 使得中央有再介入的空間;在此個案中雖然中央政府與地方政府為同一政黨,但因應當時的政治情勢與社會觀感對中央所造成的壓力,使得菁英體制的意見、立場分 歧,讓挑戰者得以抓住此機會獲得成功;而完整且多元政治聯盟的存在,在行動中有效的發揮其絕對的作用力與影響;在行動中低度的政府強制力展現與傾向,使抗 爭行動能持續的進行。另外竹南大埔事件為過程中的關鍵突發事件,並造成一定的後續影響。研究顯示,在進行社會運動時,若挑戰者能將訴求對象層級拉高,即可尋找其他政治管道;且若促成菁英間意見不同、立場分裂時極有可能產生政治機會結構的機會;挑戰者透過與其他團體或專家、學者相互連結,得以互補資源上的不足;以及如何避免衝突抑或如何減弱政府強制力展現與傾向;掌握短期突發事件所帶來的影響等,皆可能在行動中創造政治機會結構。
    Nowadays, Taiwan carries out the system of local self-governing. Local government has autonomy in planning, decision-making, implementation, providing service, and regulation. In order to improve local finance, promote local development and show local government performance, the mayor often attempts to achieve policy goals and political purposes by large-scale development projects. However, it may cause pollution, risk, and change land use and lifestyle radically, which even affect the residents’ survival and residential rights seriously. The Houlong science and technology park project dominated by the Miaoli County Government has caused controversial problems and conflicts between the government and local residents. This thesis uses concepts of political opportunity structure to explore the movement. The research methods adopted are documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. It examines whether the political opportunity structure exist in the oppositional movement? Does challenger create and grasp the political opportunity structure? Are there any short-term events which affect the outcome and development?

    It finds that local government closes the political channel, so that the challengers turn to central government searching other opportunity. Because of the institutional factor, the central government can intervene. Although the central and local governments belong to the same party in this case, the political situation and social reactions make the pressure to the central governments. It brought the elite alignment divide and discrepancy, so that challengers are able to get the chance. A complete and staunch alliance can bring the mighty influence. The lower level of government’s capacity and propensity for repression could keep the movement proceeding. Besides, the Jhunan Dapu Event is a critical short-term event in the process and influence of follow-up. The results show that if the challengers are able to appeal to the higher level of targets, they could seek other opportunity during the movement. In addition, if they could facilitate the elite alignment divide and discrepancy, it also could produce other political opportunity structure. Challengers connect with other groups, experts and scholars, which could address the problem of inadequate resources and can avoid the conflicts or weaken the government repression. Finally, the grasp of the shot-term event also could create the political opportunity structure in the action.
    Appears in Collections:[公共行政學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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