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    Title: 第一部分 : D型絲胺酸之胚胎毒性分析;第二部分 : 斑馬魚ankh家族在發育時的基因表現
    Other Titles: Part I : zebrafish as a model for safety assessments of D-serine;part II : developmental expressions of two zebrafish ankh genes, ankha and ankhb
    D型絲胺酸之胚胎毒性分析
    斑馬魚ankh家族在發育時的基因表現
    Zebrafish as a model for safety assessments of D-serine
    Developmental expressions of two zebrafish ankh genes, ankha and ankhb
    Authors: 陳星光;Chen, Xing-Guang
    Contributors: 淡江大學化學學系碩士班
    陳曜鴻;Chen, Yau-Hung
    Keywords: 斑馬魚;D型絲胺;鈣離子;NMDA受體;關節炎;Zebrafish;D-serine;calcium;NMDA receptor;ankha;ankhb;arthritis
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 11:05:04 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 第一部分:D 型絲胺酸之胚胎毒性分析
    人體為一有機的生命體,在所有的生命活動過程中,都需要有各種重要的物質元素來參與,而其中鈣離子則廣泛被人探討,因為鈣離子在神經與肌肉的發育上,扮演著關鍵的角色,更為突顯其重要性。目前所知神經突觸末端與肌肉連結的區域會倚賴鈣離子來傳遞訊號,因此,在此區域密集地分布著許多受體,例如像是NMDA受體、AMPA受體、kainate等,以用來幫助鈣離子的傳遞,其中,又以NMDA受體對鈣離子的通透性最高。NMDA受體的活化需要仰賴一些神經傳導物質,而過去研究指出,哺乳動物神經系統中確實存在一種內生性的D型絲胺酸,這種內生性的D型絲胺酸即為活化NMDA受體的關鍵因子之一。在我們的實驗中,透過顯微注射D型絲胺酸到斑馬魚胚胎內,確實會觀察到肌肉纖維與神經分化的不正常,且表現的形態呈現劑量依賴性(dose-dependent),以肌肉方面來說,我們發現高濃度的D型絲胺酸會使魚體外表出現明顯彎曲,且肌肉出現嚴重的排列絮亂,並且在其甩尾運動能力上也大受影響;另外過度表現D型絲胺酸也會使神經分化數量減少,神經排列也比野生種斑馬魚來的不整齊。其表現型態與咖啡因極為類似,更能進一步推測D型絲胺酸與鈣離子釋放的間接關係。因其重要性質,本文將探討D型絲胺酸在神經系統中的分布、合成及其生理機能。而透過顯微注射D型絲胺酸到斑馬魚胚胎之中,觀察D型絲胺酸之胚胎毒性分析。

    第二部分:斑馬魚ankh家族在發育時的基因表現
    關節病變、僵直性脊椎炎舉凡這一類的關節疾病至今仍是無法明白發生原因,但此疾病卻困擾著許多患者;在脊椎動物方面,研究指出,ANKH基因所表現出來的蛋白為一胺基酸殘基的跨膜蛋白,其表現位置在關節接合處和其他組織,負責細胞內外無機焦磷酸鹽的調控,有助於防止組織鈣化作用,而此同源基因ank在老鼠上的表現也與人類類似,若此基因出現突變,則會導致關節接合處出現結晶。在斑馬魚方面,此基因有兩種表現型態,分別是 ankha與 ankhb,而ankha蛋白是由306個胺基酸所構成,ankhb蛋白則是由501個胺基酸所構成。本研究將透過原位雜交法(whole-mount in situ hybridization)初步探討早期此兩種不同基因在斑馬魚發育時期所表現的位置,實驗結果顯示,ankha與 ankhb在受精後1 cell、6 hpf、12 hpf、18 hpf等早期發育時皆有表現,並在24 hpf、36 hpf、48 hpf、72 hpf、5 dpf、7 dpf訊號主要集中在頭部;不同的是,在24 hpf與36 hpf時,ankhb會表現在卵黃延長區(yolk extension),並且ankhb的表現在5 dpf後訊號便會開始變弱,到7 dpf時幾乎已經無法觀察到訊號表現,這些現象在ankha方面是沒有發現的。
    雖然實驗結果無論是ankha或ankhb的表現並不如預期地表現在骨骼相關的位置處,不過也曾有文獻指出,在老鼠方面,早期ank基因也表現在許多軟組織上,這或許與斑馬魚的早期表現相似,將來可再更進一步研究七天後或更大一點時期之斑馬魚的ankh表現模式。
    PART I : Zebrafish as a model for safety assessments of D-serine
    The area where the nerve were known that synaptic terminals associate with muscle will rely on the calcium ion to transmit the signal, thus, at this area enriched lot of receptor,such as as NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, kainate, helping the calcium ion transmission.With the permeability among them to calcium ion,the NMDA receptor has the highest permeability.The activation of the NMDA receptor needs to be dependent on some neurotransmitters,studied in the past, the mammal really exist the endogenous D-serine in the nervous system, this endogenous D-serine is one of the key factors for the activation of NMDA receptors In our study, zebrafish embryos by microinjection D-serine is indeed observed abnormal muscle fibers and neural differentiation, and showing the dose-dependent.To muscle,we found high concentrations of D-serine causes the fish appearance significant bending,muscle appearance serious irregular arrangement,and athletic ability is also greatly affected; in addition overexpression of D-serine also cause neuronal differentiation reduce, neural arrangement irregular than the wild species of zebra fish.Expression patterns are extremely similar caffeine,more further speculated that D-serine and calcium release of the indirect relationship. Because the important properties,this study will discuss the D-serine.Utilize through inject D-serine into zebrafish embryo, observe and analyse the D-serine toxicity for zebrafish embryo.

    PART II:Developmental expressions of two zebrafish ankh genes, ankha and ankhb
    Arthritic is a common condition affecting 3% of people aged 65–69 years,in which calcium containing crystals form in articular cartilage. The crystals most commonly involved consist of either calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate(CPPD) or calcium hydroxyapatite.Although the heritability of the condition in the general community is unknown,it have been described that loss of
    function of an inorganic pyrophosphate(PPi) transporter,the ANKH gene, has been demonstrated to
    cause excess calcium hydroxyapatite formation in the ank/ank mouse and this defect could be rescued by transfection of the wild-type ank into mutant fibroblasts.Zebrafish has two ANKH homologous genes,respectively ankha and ankhb.In this study whole-mount in situ hybridization wasutilized explore the two different gene signals in zebrafish early developmental stages.
    The experimental results show that both of ankha and ankhb are detected in 1 cell, 6 hpf, 12 hpf, 18 hpf of early embryos.In 24 hpf., 36 hpf., 48 hpf., 72 hpf. 5 dpf 7 dpf,the transcript is mainly concentrated in the head;The difference is that at 24 hpf and 36 hpf of ankhb will be manifested in the axial vein,intermediate cell mass and dorsal aorta.5 dpf,ankhb signal is weaker.7 dpf embryo ankha transcript was not detectable in 7 dpf.
    Appears in Collections:[化學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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