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    Title: International joint ventures in light of weak intellectual property right law enforcement in the people's Republic of China
    Other Titles: 中國智慧財產權執行不力下之國際合資問題研討
    Authors: 潘啟明;Epand, Michael
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際企業學系碩士班
    林宜男;簡仁德;Lin, Yi-Nan;Chien, Jen-Ter
    Keywords: 國際合資;直接投資;智慧財產權;侵犯;保護;Joint Venture;Foreign Direct Investment;Intellectual Property Rights;infringement;protection
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:56:57 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 國際合資是當今許多企業欲在海外市場營運所選用的模型。該模型顯著的優點在於低投資成本及政府的獎勵措施。然而在智慧財產權保護制度不彰的國家,鑒於專利被侵犯的高風險,合資僅被視為在外人直接投資模型之下的次選項。企業傾向選擇外商獨資的做法;其以對資產的有力控制及智財權的掌握為顯著優勢。

    本研究主要有兩個目的:第一個目的探討為何合資較外商獨資企業承受更高的風險,故使外籍企業放棄合資的方式並採取外商獨資企業。此議題首先從技術外流的面向審查再從使技術外流各個不同之因素。而有鑑於在中國實施合資其相對高風險的本質以及智慧財產權保護的匱乏,本研究第二個目的為提供國家特定的智財權保護措施,以避免專利受侵害。

    本研究先為回顧因國際合資造成技術外流現象之文獻。根據回顧內容歸結出:在兩種外資的模型中,國際合資相對更容易導致技術外流;進一步則會產生智財權受侵害的風險。其原因在於國際合資模型中企業與合作對象及上游廠商的密切往來。與外來合作對象的密切接觸使本土企業從而習得合作營運的經驗;如此的經驗將有助於本土企業提升其知識和能力的水平,使企業本身更具國際競爭力。然在日後,本土企業知識的應用可能形成與國外企業競爭之局勢;甚至產生侵權的問題。基於上述理由,在外人直接投資的模型中,國際合資較外商獨資更具風險。

    因為智慧財產權保護的匱乏本研究為有意在中國採行國際合資的企業,從文獻中整合出保護智財權作法之建議。具體做法可分為兩大類。第一類是藉由發展特定的技術,使競爭對手難以觀察到己企業競爭優勢的來源。具體做法包括:關鍵技術維持機密、增加技術的複雜度及提升專門性、同時強調購買正版產品的利益;教育客戶購買正版。第二類在於創新以及內外關係之維繫;換言之,以互信與友誼建立合作關係基礎,用社會關係形成的防禦機制、從而抑止侵權行為的發生。
    International joint venture (IJV) is a mode of investment chosen by many firms, seeking to operate in foreign markets. It is chosen because it offers substantially lower costs of entry, and other government incentives. However, in countries with poor intellectual property right (IPR) protection regimes, JVs are a secondary choice as a mode of foreign direct investment (FDI). Due to a high risk of IPR infringement, firms prefer wholly foreign owned enterprises (WFOEs) which offer granular control over the entire venture and most important the use and dispersion of its intellectual property.

    This study has two main goals. The first is to understand why IJVs are risker than WFOEs thus leading most foreign investors to abandon the IJV as a mode of FDI in China. This is examined from the angle of technology spillover and then from that of the various elements that make technology spillover more likely to occur in IJVs. Due to the riskier nature of IJVs and the poor IPR protection regime in China, the second goal, is to offer country specific IPR protection methods that can be used by foreign firms in order to avoid IPR infringement.

    This study reviews the literature pertaining to technology spillover that results from IJV. Based on this review, we conclude that of the two modes of FDI, IJVs are more likely to result in technology spillover, and consequently a higher risk of IPR infringement. This occurs because of the closer contact firms in IJVs have with their partners as well as upstream industries that supply the JV. The proximity with foreign partners, gives local firms an opportunity to learn from the experience of being in a joint operation. This learning experience, in turn, allows firms to advance their knowledge and capabilities and raise their stature to international levels. However, this knowledge may later be used to compete with the foreign firm, and can be especially harmful if this knowledge includes the foreign partner’s intellectual property. For these reasons, IJVs are riskier than WFOEs as a mode of FDI.

    To address the risky nature of IJV, this study synthesizes IPR protection recommendations from the literature for firms that want invest via IJV in China. In this study we offer five IPR protection methods that do not rely on IPR law and law enforcement system in China. These protection methods are separated into two groups. The first is aimed at making it more difficult for other firms to recognize the source of a company’s competitive advantage, with particular emphasis on the company’s technology. These methods include: keeping key elements of a technology secret; purposely making the technology more complex or specialized; and lastly, educating customers in ways that they find it more beneficial to purchase original products. The second group includes the creation and maintenance of internal and external guanxi. That is, crafting relationships based on trust and friendship with stakeholders within as well as without of the JV, thus creating social barriers to reduce the chances of IPR infringement.
    Appears in Collections:[國際企業學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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