2008年台灣為吸引大陸台商返台投資，決定放寬回台上市的規定，但多數採取觀望的態度，主要還是稅務相關問題尚未釐清。大多數台商擔心回台上市會面臨各項稅負的不確定性，導致上市成本風險提高，強調稅負成本才是最後決定是否回台上市最重要的關鍵因素。因此本研究從實務面探討，在目前兩岸最新的稅法規範下，關於台商回台掛牌上市需要仔細考量的問題，如「無根台商」或「有根台商」選擇不同的上市主體（海外控股公司或台灣母公司），申請直接第一上市或第二上市所衍生的稅負成本。 研究結果顯示，台商以控股公司申請第一上市為其主要的模式，主要的稅負成本係股權重組在兩岸方面衍生的資本利得稅。且在大陸新企業所得稅法的影響下，不同的控股公司設立地點，在稅負節省上亦有不同效果。 The government has loosened the regulations governing Taiwanese enterprises in China launching IPOs in Taiwan securities market since 2008 in view of attracting these enterprises to return to invest in Taiwan. However, most Taiwanese enterprises adopt the wait-and-see approach since there are still ambiguities in tax issues which need further clarification. Most Taiwanese enterprises are concerned with the uncertainty of various tax burdens, raising the cost risk associated with launching IPOs in the Taiwan securities market. They stress that tax burdens are the most important factor affecting their decision to launch IPOs in the Taiwan securities market. As a result, this research examines the topic from a practical aspect by discussing issues which need to be considered when Taiwanese enterprises launch IPOs in Taiwan under the current tax regimes across the Strait. For example, the tax burdens arise from the selection of different IPO entity, namely “rootless Taiwanese enterprise” or “rooted Taiwanese business” (offshore holding company or Taiwan’s parent company)” to apply directly for primary listing or cross-listing in the Taiwan securities market. The research results show that Taiwanese enterprises incline to apply for primary listing as holding companies. The major tax burden comes from the capital gains taxes arising from share right restructuring levied in both Taiwan and China. In addition, under the new PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, the place of registration of a holding company has different effects on tax-savings.