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    Title: 兩岸小學社會科教科書中公民教育內涵與教學取向之比較分析
    Other Titles: Comparing elementary social studies textbooks across the Taiwan strait : a study of citizenship education and approaches of teaching
    Authors: 郭秀梅;Kuo, Hsiu-Mei
    Contributors: 淡江大學課程與教學研究所碩士班
    宋佩芬
    Keywords: 公民教育;社會科;兩岸教科書;civic education;social studies;cross-strait textbooks
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:49:05 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究旨在透過兩岸小學現行社會科教科書的分析、比較來了解兩岸公民教育的內涵,研究方法主要以文本分析與比較分析為主。本研究發現,在全球化的浪潮下兩岸皆進行公民教育改革,重視法治教育與全球化教育,關心學生的身心健康與公民權利,課程內容也常與學生的生活經驗相連結,重視學生的公民素養與能力。但深究兩岸的公民教育內涵,也發現其公民教育取向大不相同。
    台灣公民教育內涵較傾向於自由主義、多元文化主義,重視公民的個人權利與民主法治的精神,強調家鄉認同與多元文化教育,並有去政治化及本土化的傾向,缺乏國家符號與認同。中國在光譜上則呈現國家主義的趨向,公民教育的內涵最強調的是對於國家認同感的培養,希望學生要愛黨、愛國、重視集體,強調中國式的民主。
    公民教育的教學取向上,兩岸皆以傳遞公民資質取向為主,但試圖在課本中增加社會科學方法,希望學生學習應用,而反省探究的教學取向是相對缺乏的。本研究亦發現台灣的國小社會教科書以傳遞知識為主,在撰寫上力求平實理性,但讀來像是本百科全書與說明文,不慍不火,缺乏趣味與活潑性。中國的教科書在方法呈現上,似乎比較活潑多元,可以看見在教科書中力求將活動融入增加趣味及活潑性,在文字上也較有感染力。
    以上研究發現可知,台灣雖想培育具有自由民主與多元文化素養的公民,但在教科書呈現的教學取向上多以知識傳遞、灌輸的方式為主,反觀中國大陸,雖然以國家主義為中心論調,但是在方法上卻活潑多元,這是台灣可以效仿與學習的。因此本文建議,兩岸需增加反省探究的教學取向,設計讓學生具有批判、省思等能力的課程與教學。台灣需要思考如何讓教科書內容設計上更多元、活潑,大陸則須減少政治意識形態的課程內容,以增加兩岸對話的可能。
    The purpose of this study is to understand the substance of cross-strait civic education through analyzing and comparing current social studies textbooks in cross-strait elementary schools. Text analysis and comparative analysis methods are used. The analyses reveal that, in the wave of globalization, the two sides are both doing civic education reforms. They both value the education of law and order and issues of globalization, along with concerns about students'' physical and mental health as well as civil rights. The course contents often relate to students'' life experiences, emphasizing students'' civic literacy and competence. However, after investigating, I found that the contents of civic education and their approaches of teaching are significantly different.
    The nature of Civic education in Taiwan is more towards liberalism and multiculturalism. It values citizens'' individual rights and the spirit of democracy and law and order, emphasizing local identity and multicultural education. It also inclines to depoliticize and localize, lacking national symbols and identity. China, on the other hand, shows a tendency of nationalism. The content of its civic education emphasizes cultivating a sense of national identity the most, hoping the students to love the party, love the country, value collectivity, and stressing the Chinese-style democracy.
    The approaches of teaching of the two sides are both oriented in the Citizenship Transmission approach, but they both try to increase Social Sciences approach in the textbooks, hoping students to learn how to think objectively. The Reflective Inquiry Approach is used the least. This study also found that Taiwan’s elementary social studies narrative attempts to be neutral and rational, but it reads like an encyclopedia and expository text. They are bland, lacking fun and liveliness. The textbooks in China appear to be more lively and diverse. We can see how they strive to blend in activities to add to the fun and liveliness. The narrative is also more infectious and affective.
    The research findings indicate that even though Taiwan’s social studies textbooks attempt to prepare liberal democratic and multicultural citizenship, the teaching approaches represented in the textbooks are transmission oriented; on the other hand, even though China’s textbooks focus on nationalism, the teaching approaches are more diverse and lively. This is what Taiwan can learn about. I suggest in this study that both sides should increase the Reflective Inquiry approach in their curricula and emphasize critical and reflective thinking in their citizenship education. Taiwan should learn how to make a diverse and lively curriculum, while China needs to reduce its ideological content in order to allow across-strait dialogues.
    Appears in Collections:[課程與教學研究所] 學位論文

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