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|Title: ||西班牙非法移民問題之研究 : 以北非移民為例|
|Other Titles: ||The study of the illegal immigrants from North Africa in Spain|
|Authors: ||虞惠婷;Yu, Hui-Ting|
|Keywords: ||非法移民;北非;西班牙;推拉理論;雙勞動市場理論;illegal immigrants;North Africa;Spain;Push and Pull Theory;Dual Labor Markets Theory|
|Issue Date: ||2013-04-13 10:37:11 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||西班牙在80年代中期加入歐體之後經濟持續成長，因此吸引了大量的外國移民進入。但隨著外來移民逐漸的增加，西班牙在20年的時間內由勞工輸出國轉變為移民的接收國。此外，西班牙在快速經濟成長背景下也促使了地下經濟的興起。龐大的地下經濟比例讓非法移民能以打黑工的方式在當地生存。西班牙在面臨大量外來移民之前，國內並沒有太多移民的相關規範。其中，尤其是南部邊境的管制特別寬鬆，使得非法移民有機會從南部邊境進入西班牙，並且開始滯留於當地，導致非法移民的問題逐漸的增加。 |
Spain was a country of emigration. After joining to the EC, Spain’s economy grew continuously which lured lots of foreign immigrants. The increasing numbers of the immigrants transferred Spain into a country of immigration. With growth in formal economy, the underground economy was booming at the same time. Thanks to the large proportion of the underground economy which was composed of both the legal and illegal works, many illegal immigrants could find a job and live in Spain. The underground economy was one of the pull effect.
In addition, the loose immigration policy was the other pull effect. Especially in the southern border which had the loose restriction, the number of illegal North African who passed the border easily increased year by year. The reasons above enabled the illegal North African to have the income and sustain their livings in Spain.
The EU has had their eyes on the immigration issue since 80s.Because of the free movement of people, which achieved under the EU common market in 90s, the number of illegal immigrants began to increase. Under free movement of people, European have the right to work, live and travel in another EU countries, while at the same time illegal immigrants benefit from the rules. That accounts for the soaring illegal population which became a problem in the member states.
Without strict immigration policies, Spain has attracted illegal immigrants and become a hub in the Mediterranean region. North Africa has different culture and religion. Therefore, the illegal immigrants from these countries bring attention in Spain. Not only Spain but also the EU consider about the affection of illegal immigrants from North Africa. The EU has not the common migration policy, and hence the migration policy is based on each member states. In order to reduce the number of illegal immigrants, Spain reinforce its southern border. Aside of border control, legalization is one of the main policy to decrease illegal immigrants in Spain.
The structure of this study is as followed. First, the historical background of immigration in Spain. Second, the social and economy impacts of illegal immigrants in Spain. Third, in order to reduce the illegal immigrants, how the EU and Spain combat them and what are the measures under immigration policy.
|Appears in Collections:||[歐洲研究所] 學位論文|
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