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    Title: 波蘭十八世紀三次瓜分之研究
    Other Titles: The research of the three partitions of Poland in the 18th century
    Authors: 李元淳;Li, Yuan-Chun
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    鄭欽模;Cheng, Chin-mo
    Keywords: 波蘭;瓜分;立陶宛;自由否決權;Poland;paritition;Lithuania;Liberum veto
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:37:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 波蘭王國曾經是中東歐最強盛的國家之一,在1569年盧布林聯合與立陶宛大公國之後,國力更是到達顛峰,在當時幾乎少有國家能與之抗衡。但是在巔峰之後,就開始走下坡。在十七世紀中,國家開始衰弱。到了十八世紀,波蘭更是淪為外國勢力互相鬥爭的場所。終於在十八世紀晚期的三次瓜分,使得波蘭從歐洲的地圖上消失。
    波蘭亡國的原因眾多,其中包括讓貴族享有特權的貴族民主制;使得外國勢力進入波蘭的自由選王制;只要有一個人投反對票,就能使議會不能夠運作的自由否決權。除此之外,還有經濟、宗教、種族和戰爭等因素。

    波蘭在1772年遭到俄普奧三國第一次瓜分;第一次瓜分之後,短暫的革新運動包括四年議會與五三憲法讓波蘭人似乎看到了微弱的曙光。但是好景不常,俄普兩國在1793年再次瓜分波蘭,接著1795年三國又再次瓜分波蘭,波蘭就滅亡了。
    The Kingdom of Poland was one of the most powerful countries in the central eastern Europe. After they consolidate with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569 via the Union of Lublin, they are in the zenith. However, after the Union of Lublin, it declined In the middle of 17th century, the commonwealth became weak, and in the 18th century, the commonwealth became a place where other foreign powers fought against each other. Finally, the three partitions in the late 18th century made Poland disappear from the map of Europe.
    There are many reasons why Poland was perished. Nobles’ democracy gave the nobles privilege on everything; Free election made the foreign power invade and interfere the domestic affairs of Poland; Liberum veto allowed any member of the Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify any legislation that had already been passed at the session by shouting: “I do not allow!”. Besides, economic, religion, race and war were all reasons.

    In 1772, the first partition of Poland was made by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. After the first partition, there are some short-term renovations such as four-year Sejm and the constitution of 3 May. However, Russia and Prussia made the second partition in 1793. In 1795 the three countries made it again,Poland was perished.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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