|其他題名: ||A study of the European Union policy on climate change|
|作者: ||陳世杰;Chen, Shih-jey|
鄒忠科;TZOU, Chong-Ko Peter
|關鍵詞: ||歐洲聯盟;氣候變遷;歷史制度主義;雙層賽局;關鍵時刻;贏集;Historical institutionalism;Two-level games;Critical junctures;Win-set|
|上傳時間: ||2013-04-13 10:36:58 (UTC+8)|
本論文針對歐盟對抗氣候變遷政策中內部氣候變遷政策脈絡以及歐盟在國際氣候典則議題談判表現兩個面向，採取雙研究途徑，其中內部氣候變遷政策的研究採用歷史制度主義理論概念，分析評估歐盟內部氣候變遷政策自形成至今的發展過程；就歐盟對外國際氣候典則談判的分析，則以Robert D. Putnam 雙層賽局理論作為研究途徑，透過賽局層次二「贏集大小」及「談判者角色」概念，探討歐盟就國際氣候典則談判制度的利弊以及未來在談判制度面改革的選項。主要採取的研究方法為歷史文獻的檢閱分析，透過對文獻的解讀，瞭解歐盟氣候變遷政策的歷史脈絡、決策過程、政策內涵以及內外互動，並透過理論加以檢證。
The low-carbon emission goal which the European Union sets to reach has an interactive relationship with its internal climate change policy and external negotiations for climate change agreements. The EU hammers out its internal climate change policy through coordination and integration among member states. The implementation result through internal policy measures helps it to pursue more ambitious low carbon economy and to reach an EU-favored international climate change agreement conducive to the mitigation of climate change on the negotiation table. However, the outcome of international negotiations would function to influence the EU internal policy on climate change and would result in different policy actions if it tends to comply with the international code. As the EU policy on climate change evolves deeper and deeper, the need to finalize the low-carbon economy pursued by both internal and external climate change policies will lead the triangle relations to more entangled and interactive ones. It’s an intriguing issue to interpret, by exploiting appropriate theory approaches, what kinds of internal and external policy factors matter and how both interact when we discuss the EU policy on climate change.
To address these issues, this dissertation conducts duo approaches with historical institutionalism and Robert D. Putnam’s two-level games theory aiming for explaining the internal and external climate change policy respectively. The author uses the former to analyze and evaluate the evolution of the EU internal policy on climate change in the past 20 or so years while the latter’s key concepts such as win-set and negotiator’s role in the game level 2 serve to pinpoint the EU’s strength and weakness when facing its bargaining counterparts and thus build a basis for further reform options on its negotiation system. The author intends to accurately figure out the EU climate change policy’s historical context, decision-making process, contents and internal-external interactions by ways of historical research, information analysis, and cause-and-effect narrative. The theory concepts are used for further illustration of the EU policy on climate change.
The dissertation consists of eight chapters. Chapter one is the introduction. Chapter two explores the historical context of climate change issue evolution in the international political arena and legal regimes up-to-date. Chapter three describes the genesis of the EU policy on climate change and its evolving context in the last two decades. Chapter four probes main mitigation measures in the energy consumption field to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Chapter five examines main mitigation measures in non-energy consumption sectors to reduce other non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Chapter six compares the EU’s gains and losses when it bargained with its counterparts regarding international agreements on climate change issues in the past 20 years. Chapter seven reviews the EU internal policy on climate change and its performance in the external negotiations from the perspectives of historical institutionalism and two-level games theory, respectively. Chapter eight makes a conclusion.
Through the lens of both theories, the author strongly believes it conducive to have clear picture of the whole context of EU policy on climate change from its formation to continuation to evolution, and helpful to foretell the policy orientation in the future. Regarding the substantial policy subject matter, the author argues that the relationship between internal climate change policy and external negotiations on international climate change agreements is an ongoing positively interactive dynamic process which binds those two policies together. On the one hand, the EU drives forward the integration of its internal climate change policy by way of playing a leading role in the global environmental politics. On the other hand, it always tries to lead the way by example, which shows significant results of its internal climate change policy measures, to enact more ambitious international climate change agreements. Both policies are mutually-dependent sides of the same coin that benefits each other.