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    Title: 歐洲聯盟氣候變遷政策之研究
    Other Titles: A study of the European Union policy on climate change
    Authors: 陳世杰;Chen, Shih-jey
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所博士班
    鄒忠科;TZOU, Chong-Ko Peter
    Keywords: 歐洲聯盟;氣候變遷;歷史制度主義;雙層賽局;關鍵時刻;贏集;Historical institutionalism;Two-level games;Critical junctures;Win-set
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-04-13 10:36:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 歐洲聯盟氣候變遷政策所要實現的低碳排放目標,與其內部氣候變遷政策與對外氣候典則談判具有循環與相互影響的關係。歐盟經由協調整合形成內部的氣候變遷政策,透過政策措施執行成果,一方面邁向低碳經濟,另一方面藉由國際談判,將內部氣候變遷政策目標轉為國際典則內容,以實現減緩氣候變遷的全球共同願景。相對地,國際典則談判結果會影響歐盟內部氣候變遷政策,使其政策措施行動依國際典則規範而變動。而隨著歐盟氣候變遷政策的深化,低碳經濟成為其內部氣候變遷政策與對外典則談判的共同目標,在此一目標下,內外氣候變遷政策不斷發展演變、相互影響。因此如何透過適當理論途徑,分析闡釋歐盟氣候變遷政策中的內外因素及兩者之間的互動影響,確是一值得研究的議題。
    本論文針對歐盟對抗氣候變遷政策中內部氣候變遷政策脈絡以及歐盟在國際氣候典則議題談判表現兩個面向,採取雙研究途徑,其中內部氣候變遷政策的研究採用歷史制度主義理論概念,分析評估歐盟內部氣候變遷政策自形成至今的發展過程;就歐盟對外國際氣候典則談判的分析,則以Robert D. Putnam 雙層賽局理論作為研究途徑,透過賽局層次二「贏集大小」及「談判者角色」概念,探討歐盟就國際氣候典則談判制度的利弊以及未來在談判制度面改革的選項。主要採取的研究方法為歷史文獻的檢閱分析,透過對文獻的解讀,瞭解歐盟氣候變遷政策的歷史脈絡、決策過程、政策內涵以及內外互動,並透過理論加以檢證。
    本論文共八章,第一章導論、第二章國際氣候變遷議題的發展脈絡與典則規範、第三章歐盟氣候變遷議題源起與政策發展脈絡、第四章歐盟在能源使用領域的主要減緩措施、第五章歐盟在非能源使用領域的主要減緩措施、第六章歐盟在國際氣候典則談判的結果與表現、第七章自歷史制度主義概念與雙層賽局理論觀點,檢視歐盟內部氣候變遷政策與對外典則談判的表現、第八章結論。
    經由相關理論概念的運用,作者認為確實有助於深入瞭解歐盟氣候變遷政策從形成、延續與演變的整體脈絡,以及分析氣候變遷政策的未來走向;在政策實質推動面,作者認為,自1980 年代下半以來迄今,歐盟內部氣候變遷政策與對外氣候議題談判的關係,為一持續進行且相互影響的良性動態過程,歐盟經由在國際環境政治舞台的角色扮演而驅動內部氣候變遷政策的整合,以及透過內部氣候變遷政策措施推動成果而引導制定國際氣候典則方向,都是歐盟氣候變遷政策中相輔相成、不能偏廢的兩個面向。
    The low-carbon emission goal which the European Union sets to reach has an interactive relationship with its internal climate change policy and external negotiations for climate change agreements. The EU hammers out its internal climate change policy through coordination and integration among member states. The implementation result through internal policy measures helps it to pursue more ambitious low carbon economy and to reach an EU-favored international climate change agreement conducive to the mitigation of climate change on the negotiation table. However, the outcome of international negotiations would function to influence the EU internal policy on climate change and would result in different policy actions if it tends to comply with the international code. As the EU policy on climate change evolves deeper and deeper, the need to finalize the low-carbon economy pursued by both internal and external climate change policies will lead the triangle relations to more entangled and interactive ones. It’s an intriguing issue to interpret, by exploiting appropriate theory approaches, what kinds of internal and external policy factors matter and how both interact when we discuss the EU policy on climate change.
    To address these issues, this dissertation conducts duo approaches with historical institutionalism and Robert D. Putnam’s two-level games theory aiming for explaining the internal and external climate change policy respectively. The author uses the former to analyze and evaluate the evolution of the EU internal policy on climate change in the past 20 or so years while the latter’s key concepts such as win-set and negotiator’s role in the game level 2 serve to pinpoint the EU’s strength and weakness when facing its bargaining counterparts and thus build a basis for further reform options on its negotiation system. The author intends to accurately figure out the EU climate change policy’s historical context, decision-making process, contents and internal-external interactions by ways of historical research, information analysis, and cause-and-effect narrative. The theory concepts are used for further illustration of the EU policy on climate change.
    The dissertation consists of eight chapters. Chapter one is the introduction. Chapter two explores the historical context of climate change issue evolution in the international political arena and legal regimes up-to-date. Chapter three describes the genesis of the EU policy on climate change and its evolving context in the last two decades. Chapter four probes main mitigation measures in the energy consumption field to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Chapter five examines main mitigation measures in non-energy consumption sectors to reduce other non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Chapter six compares the EU’s gains and losses when it bargained with its counterparts regarding international agreements on climate change issues in the past 20 years. Chapter seven reviews the EU internal policy on climate change and its performance in the external negotiations from the perspectives of historical institutionalism and two-level games theory, respectively. Chapter eight makes a conclusion.
    Through the lens of both theories, the author strongly believes it conducive to have clear picture of the whole context of EU policy on climate change from its formation to continuation to evolution, and helpful to foretell the policy orientation in the future. Regarding the substantial policy subject matter, the author argues that the relationship between internal climate change policy and external negotiations on international climate change agreements is an ongoing positively interactive dynamic process which binds those two policies together. On the one hand, the EU drives forward the integration of its internal climate change policy by way of playing a leading role in the global environmental politics. On the other hand, it always tries to lead the way by example, which shows significant results of its internal climate change policy measures, to enact more ambitious international climate change agreements. Both policies are mutually-dependent sides of the same coin that benefits each other.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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